Study of the Specialization Core- Organizational Leadership, Citibank, and dealing with the Conflicts

Business Core

Study of the Specialization Core- Organizational Leadership, Citibank, and dealing with the Conflicts

Abstract

This assesses the effects of leadership style on organizational performance.  In this regard, it investigates the impact of a leader’s effectiveness, charisma, inspiring motivation, and intellectual stimulus. It also takes into account personal contemplation, efficiency, additional effort, and satisfaction. The primary purpose is to determine the impact of leadership styles on performance in an organization. Transformational and transactional leadership styles are investigated in this study. The most regarded transformational leadership behaviors include charisma, inspiring motivation, and intellectual stimulus, personal contemplation; and effectiveness, additional effort, and satisfaction, correspondingly. In this competitive environment, a compelling leadership style is essential to reduce the level of attrition. It is only through the application of the appropriate leadership styles that an organization’s goals can be realized. Leadership styles affect employees’ performance and productivity in general. This paper recapitulates and analyzes the existing literature of leadership styles and the effect of diverse mechanisms on the value of work existence.

Keywords: Leadership styles, behaviors, work existence, Impact

 

 

 

Business Core

Majorly, the paper focuses on delineating leadership and its application in the 21st century. The project takes on the following questions as it relates to the leadership style, effectiveness, charisma, inspiring motivation, and intellectual stimulus, personal contemplation; and effectiveness, additional effort, and satisfaction. What is the meaning of leadership? How does leadership impact the different components of the organization? How has it changed over the years? How can we develop better leaders for today? As a strategy to conduct this research, information was retrieved from Northcentral Library and Google Scholars database using the phrase, “leadership,” and “societal works” from literature reviews on works done by scholars from years past to date.

Nowadays, there is an apparent deficiency of good leadership in many organizations. Since there is an association between ethical leadership and organizational performance, leadership strategy has garnered important research interests in the recent past. Having focused on these issues with leadership, the researcher has observed a lack of various elements as seen both at the operational and performance levels of organizations. The common element that is lacking is the connection to real leadership. There seems to be a lack of intelligent leaders who can create and sustain an inspiring vision and implement the vision together with their teams. Therefore, it is important to analyze the diverse leadership styles and further interrogate how employees feel about these leadership styles and capabilities.

Literature Review

Leadership Style to Performance

Leadership is considered to be an important subject in organizational behavior. The leadership style chosen by a leader has the most dynamic effect on employees during an organizational collaboration. In other words, the capability of management to implement “work in partnership effort” rests on leadership ability. The ability to foster teamwork and collaboration is vital because it ensures that things are executed at the organizational level. Managing change is also vital because leaders need to identify suitable plans to effectively manage any resistance to change by the employees.

Baily (2010), explains that an exceptional leader not only encourages employees’ potential to boost productivity but also meets their needs in the process of attaining any organizational goal. In his 2015 work, Baumeister properly defined leadership as the personal behavior that guides a group to accomplish predetermined targets. Berryman et al., (2017), defines leadership as the use of the critical approach to propose an inspirational motive and to increase the employees’ possibilities for progress and growth. Various reasons indicate the need for an association between leadership style and organizational performance.

In today’s rigorous and energetic markets, there exists vicissitude -based competition, price and performance competitiveness, declining returns, and the Schumpeter’s gale of prevailing proficiencies (Adams, 2016; Cox, 1991). Studies have proposed that active leadership behaviors can enable the enhancement of performance when organizations face these new challenges (Adams, 2016; Baumeister, 2015).  On the other hand, organizational performance is more inclined to its ability for innovativeness, which regards to achieving purposes such as high profit, quality product, huge market segment, respectable financial outcomes, and subsistence at the pre-determined time using applicable tactic for achievement (Schumpeter, 2003). Schumpeter (2003) further suggests that an organization’s performance can also be determined by its level of profit, market segment and product quality relative to its competitor in the same industry. Subsequently, this replicates the productivity of followers in business whereas measurements are proven by their performance in terms of revenue, profit, evolution, expansion, and growth of the group.

Earlier studies have shown that leadership paradigms have a direct impact on employees’ satisfaction and economic performance of companies. Consequently, the impact of leadership on organizational performance was found to be significant in their studies. According to Youssef’s review (2012), leadership studies focused their concentration disproportionately on authority-subordinate associations rather than the leader’s performance. The inclusion of performance on the organizational and environmental variables is critical to facilitate the leadership-performance relationship. The existing studies also eliminate research on leadership as a significant factor on the level of analysis. Youssef (2012) distinguishes between micro-level studies that places emphasis on the leader in relation to the subordinates and immediate supervisors, and the macro-level research that focuses on the entire group and its setting. Other scholars have also posited that leaders and leadership styles influence have an impact both on their subordinates and on the results of the organization (Akins, 2013; Arvey, 2006; Bass, 1994; Bereby-Meyer, 2015; and Fielder, 1967).

Schneider and George (2011), in their study of the absent relationship between leadership and organizational performance, came up with a theorized leadership-performance relationship, which provides some inconclusive findings and has since proved to be difficult to understand.

From this review of related literature, it is evident that some scholars have confidence that leadership improves organizational performance. However, others challenge this notion, and have instead focused on distinct concepts of leadership making direct evaluations almost incredible. Gaps and unreciprocated questions persist in this area. Therefore, the current studyaims at re-interrogating the anticipated leadership-performance relationship and, consequently, contribute the growth in the body of knowledge in this area of study.

Theories of Leadership

Great Man Theory

In the Great Man Theory by Carlyle (1993), leaders are considered to have genetic traits that enhance their ability to performs their functions using superhuman powers. Stringham (2017) asserts that the correlation is created by leader’s effectiveness and the motivations are associated with the skills that were produced by the modern markets which were attributable to their descents. For example, the company Xerox was recognized as the most noteworthy leader because it empowers its workers. The company used a platform called Yammer to motivate its employees by permitting them to use voice reaction and contribute to the business’ discussion. Further, the leaders of Xerox was able to reinforce great initiatives and correct behaviors that were erratic with the organizational strategy or business culture embedded in the Yammer platform (Richard, and Rohail, 2010)

From the review of the Great Man theory, it seems to lack sufficient scientific data or empirical validity to support its hypothesis. Thus, the theory is set separately from the inconceivability of inherent traits (Strigham, 2017). The great man is constructed on the preposterous belief that some people develop great traits and become effectual leaders regardless of their environmental conditions (Spector, 2015). Most modern philosophers, like Bert Spector (2015) have since rejected the Great Man Theory.

Trait Theory

Ralph Stogdill, who is renowned as being the modern theorist on traits for leadership, came up with the Trait Theory in 1974. This theory was centered on findings and was a total disconnect from the personality traits and characteristics and focused on looking at leadership in diverse situations. In his approach, the theorist’s focus was based on physical, societal, and personal physiognomies that were the inheritance of the leaders (Arvey, 2006). According to Arvey (2006), the attributes of great leaders, tends to separate leaders from non-leaders. This is arguably one of the most problematic traits to comprehend.

In organizations, leaders often look at what they can do as individuals to develop leadership potentials within them and others (Akins, 2013). The trait theory delivers helpful material about a leadership style that can be valuable both at anindividual level or in groupswithin an organization (Akins, 2013).  However, leaders can also apply the resources from the theory to evaluate and measure their position to see how they can be effective in their organizations. The traits theory can also be applied to managers to ensure that their understanding is congruent with their identity, so that poor behaviors do not impact others in the group (Homer, 1997). Not to mention, this theory allows the manager to become more cognizant of their strengths and weaknesses by helping them to understand how their progress impact their leadership capacities.

Behavioral Theory

Kurt Lewin and R.F White in 1939 developed the behavioral theory that focused on the behaviour of leaders that are often opposition to their original, societal or physical physiognomies. In the behavioral theory, three diverse styles of leadership which aid in the decision-making process have been identified:

  1. a) Autocratic leaders- where the leader makes the decisions fast without having to consult anyone.
  2. b) Democratic leaders- employees are allowed to contribute to the decision-making but, managers must deal with the different views or concepts emanating from the consultations.
  3. c) Laissez-faire leaders- the group is entrusted with making their own decisions without external interference from the leadership (Lewin, 1939).

Akins (2013) observes that any particular leadership style is demonstrated by the leader’s behavior. Most leaders have a habit of engrossing this theory because of their inability to modify their style based on the values, moralities, preferences and organizational culture of that business. Further, the theory is positioned around the employee’s traits of having some desire to lead. In this case, they must have honesty, be authentic, self-assuredand possess skills that relate to the specific leadership position.

The behavioral theory attempts to define leadership based on the behaviour of leaders or the activities that they execute (Homer, 1997). Conversely, the trait theory pursues a clarification of the useful leadership role in the behavior. However, the description of the practical role of behavior is demonstrated in the Michigan Research on traits substituted by the leadership behavior (Behavioral Theories of Leadership, 2015) which comprises the employee-centered paradigm against the task-centered approach. For example, the CEO of Costco, Jim, has influenced and encouraged all employees that work for him by creating value in work by him serving them. Jim pays his employees more than any other warehouse; in return, the employees stay for more extended hours and work extra hard from him. For example, Jim took a salary cut to three hundred and fifty- thousand dollars a year and decided to pass the benefits to his employees who now earn close to fifty percent more than the employees working in the competing stores (Mikkelson, 2012). Despite its usefulness, the behavior theory of leadership failed to show the impact between relational leadership and the trait of the organization (Mikkelson, 2012).

Transformational Theory and Style

In 1978, James McGregor Burn created the concept of transformational theory, which looked at the growth of followers as well as their desires. The transformational leadership focuses on the ability of the leadership and followers to encourage each other at an advanced level. Equally both the leadership and their followers are important as they focus on building collaborations, integrities, community, and inspiration; the greater human value (Choudhary, 2013). Executives with transformational leadership style insist on the development and progress of value structure for the workers and are also keen on monitoring their motivation levels, which when taken together can greatly impact on their capacities (Tebogo, 2017).

According to House (1993), the purpose of transformational leadership is to transform employees and have them embrace a change mindset. The result is to have employees having a broader vision, insight and thoughtful elucidate reasons to execute behaviors that correspond to values, ideas and implement changes which are interminable (Bass B. M., 2009), and impetus building.  According to Bass (2009), transformational leadership occurs when the leader provides for the needs of the employees. This inspires the employees to consciously focus on fulfilling the agenda of the group and go beyond their self-interests for the betterment of the group. The author further holds that transformational leaders inspire followers to interpret problem. from new standpoints, deliver support and reassurance by communicating their vision, stimulates feeling and identification.

Choudhary (2016) claims leaders describe and articulate a vision for the organization and their leadership style can affect and transform the individual-level variables by increasing the enthusiasm and attributes such as facilitating conflict-solving among groups or teams. Adams (2016) explains transformational leadership as a way to impact a person and organizational consequences by meeting the employee satisfaction and performance. He asserts that higher levels of transformational leadership are related to higher levels of group effectiveness.

Transactional Theory and Style

In 1947, Max Weber formed Transactional Theory to develop an exceedingly inspiring work setting through optimistic and reciprocally valuable connections between the leader and the follower (Mulder, 2016). However, Transactional theory stresses devious responsibilities and rewards and includes punishment as a structure based on the necessity of the actions. According to Mulder (2016), transactional leadership has a vital role in the organization because it allows managers and employees to exchange information. Transactional leadership style allows for rewards and targets amongst employees and management. Bass (2009) simplified the understanding by adding a definition of leaders who inspire employees with rewards, counteractive actions, and rule implementation.  However, both Transactional and Transformational Theory accentuates on the joining between the leader and their followers, which are exposed in the framework.

Jim Senegal’s influential concept of a small business played a dynamic part in Costco’s continuous procedure to fruitful marketing. His focus was based on meeting the needs of the small business. He required the best from suppliers while generating a vigorous leadership model for spreading prodigious entrepreneurial creation. To yield a high level of efficiency and productivity, Sinegal emphasized that each of his vendors use the invention of technology from the sales, advertising to distribution, and register management (Levine-Weinberg, 2016).  He was renowned for being a stricter on matters quality and could settle for nothing but most exceptional value, this earned him trustworthiness with employees, customers, and vendors (Levine-Weinberg, 2016).

Servant Theory

The pioneer of Servant Theory was Robert K. Green Leaf in 1970. His theory focuses on the strong role played by employees in an organization. This means that the organization places its people first, and decision-making is communal (Berryman& Company, 2017). According to Giorgio,servant leaders are identified by their commitment to listening, to empathize, look at an entire situation, communicate in plain language and grow with the organization. Schneider asserts that servant leaders believe in working closely with the entire community and this helps when actions are presented in a strategic plan. Nevertheless, it has been proven by Schneider (2011), that an employer focuses on meeting the needs of his or her employees and prioritizes their satisfaction can potentially lead to improved customer service and productivity. For example, Dr. Martin Luther King proposed in his speech a comprehensive vision to the people, he listened carefully to the people; encouraged reasoning; and reconciled factions by building community (Shank, 2012)

Nevertheless, this theory is criticized in that it does not inspire the development ofa business strategy that serves and inspires the organisation. If applied blindly this theory can cause the organization to weaken the accountability and responsibility of the organization. In short, when employees are not sufficiently inspired by the leader, they might fail to do their jobs and the responsibility and liability will rest on the leader.

Ethical Theory

In 1873, John Stuart Mills formed the Ethical Theory to focus on the questions related to the moral of good -normative ethics which, an individual must understand the difference amongst right and wrong -Practical ethics.  However, Mills shaped the utilitarianism acceptance by the honorably right actions will make the most of desire; therefore, diminish the suggestion of pain (Brink, 2016). However, the ethical theory is founded on others happiness and job satisfaction by permitting the workers to contribute to the decision-making process. The decision-making should be accomplishing and followed by the organization’s mission statement that transpires in the Great Man, Trait, Behavioral theory, and Transactional framework. Not to mention, the theory inspires and empowers others to take the lead by example.

Ethical leaders take their positions as extremely imperative, and they want to thrive in their leadership roles. Further, they want to help empower others and ensure that business and workers they serve are succeeding. The leader’sfocusis set on ensuring that job is well done. For example, CEO Muhtar Kent succeeded in making an environment within Coca-Cola that tries to dodge many of the most shared moral inadequacies by forming a culture of equality by adding more women to its corporate board and top management (Feloni, 2016). He reorganized the business by breaking down hierarchies and replaced them with ethical principles aimed making theworkers more contented by encouraging diversity and talent development.

 

 

Methodology

The prior research followed a survey design, and the analysis is based on primary data generated through a previous scholar works on theirMultifactor Leadership Questionnaire(MLQ) respondents. The survey instrument used in data generation was the (MLQ) designed by Bass (1985) on Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. The instrument measured leadership styles and outcomes or effects on the environment in several diverse types.  Prior studies operationalize these variables to evaluate the effect of leadership style or behavior on the performance of small-scale initiatives in the survey area. In the MLQ, each independent variable has equal weighting with five possible replies, ranging from “not at all” to “all the times” and is scaled from 0 to 4.

Limitation

The author suggests the most mature between the individual or group could control the functioning style of leadership.  Four styles of leadership have been established which entail contributing, entrusting, retailing and active.The author reinforced the meaning of some of those styles with the maturity level of the workers and the current task. Furthermore, the leader was asked to replicate the worker’s job maturity and psychosomatic maturity when defining the leadership approach. The ethical theory is founded on others happiness and job satisfaction by permitting the workers to contribute to the decision-making process. The decision-making should be guided by the organization’s mission statement that transpires in the Great Man, Trait, Behavioral theory, and Transactional framework. The theory inspires and empowers others to take the lead by example.  Bass and Avolio (2009) proposed that there were three different types of leaders: autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire.  He further held that all leaders fall within these three categories. The definition of leadership in both the theory and style appears to be a challenge when leadership roles change in regard to decision-making. Usually, the most active management by exception to leader should be able to define the expectations or standards in advance and monitors them accordingly (Adams, 2016). In view of the rewards, it is important to clarify the expectations. The relationship should be such that no assumptions are made. The limitations here is that the leader assumes to know the values of the followers and that the followers, which, can recognize the activities of the follower, and identifies the follower as an enthusiastic participant in this exchange.

Conclusion

In the theory of Leadership, the purpose of management in an organization should be made up of knowing the value and recognizing the position of ethical behavior in the company. At best, leaders should use demonstrated intellect, value, style, part of their accomplishment, and strategy of action that should be present on a day to day basis.  Bass (1994) anticipated for entities to generate a goal and teamwork by achieving success in the organization from the succeeding. He adds that it would be a realization in their self-reflection, communiqué, empathetic cultures, specific values, inspiration in their capabilities, their truthful views to changes that are needed by the people, and willpower to be a great leader.

The current research has been looking into the first intellectual, physical and personality traits that distinguished non-leaders from leaders which, only reveals insignificant discrepancies exist between followers and leaders. The leadership styles are only concentrated on telling individuals what to do in the autocratic, integrating others in theorizing, development, and execution in the democratic, and giving absolute autonomy of action with little or no direction in the laissez-faire.  The servant leader style emphasizes on the needs of the follower and assistance them to become more independent, ableand well-informed.  For excellent work ethics, a decisive backing could be exchanged; merit pays for raises, amplified performance, and assistance for collegiality. Further research should be conducted using relationships to steer people in a direction rather than connecting to the task itself. Additional research should also be done to look into how leadership could set examples by not making demands but, requesting behaviors or actions to be demonstrated by suggesting it for others to follow the lead. However, the gaps consist of research behind the theory and style related to the impact on the organization. In conducting the research, the studies gave only general ideas based on the views of the creators as what was assumed to be relevant to the behaviors. The MLQ only responded to information from the workers as it relates to their working conditions (one-sided view) but, not related to the impact on the organization as the leaders-lead. A more in-depth study needs to be conducted and should be inclusive of the impact on the components related to the environment. These studies should not be looked upon for guidance on how a leader response to any impact on the organization. I find them to be incomplete!

Citibank -Study on Leadership

History

For the past 18 years, I have viewed Citibank from the position of afinancial floating manager. My position entailed moving from one area or country to another where executives required my expertise. In such a position, I got to review or monitor calls for quality, evaluate all employees for compliance to federal, company, and state laws, hire and terminate employees, and protect the company against lawsuits. During the monitoring, I would listen to the employee and review their actions on an existing account which, which the employee could access and follow the conversations. To my surprise, I discovered and encountered many problems with the company’s culture, diversity, and ethics. I was shocked to find out that most employees were not trained in line with the set federal and state laws or just ignored the laws in general.

What is Organizational Culture?

Organizational Culture is considered to be the shared values in an organization. It controls and shapes the organization members by fostering the behaviors of individuals within the organization, by controlling the standards of ethics within the organization, by influencing the response of individuals on the various situation, and controlling their behaviors related the interpretations of the environment (Dempsey, 2015). According to Goodman (2001), organizational culture is the mixture of vital expectations that are shared among the membership of an organization and comprises of beliefs and values. Beliefs in which, the experience is created by the assumptions of reality and values, related to the behavior’s consideration of ideals with the desires transformed by the current leadership. However, Janicijevic (2013) interprets organizational culture by the way a company interacts with people inside and outside of the business. Weech-Maldonado (2002) on the other hand, defines organizational culture as descriptive and useful in the development. However, the organization system could vary from one organization to another and could be either integrated or grouped within the system. On the other hand, I view organization culture from the standpoint of creating a thriving work environment (G., 1986). However, the organization must show the stakeholders why the organisation exists through a detailed corporate mission and vision statement, the practice of leading by exemplary ethical conduct, and by the company’s ability to release valuable information to the stakeholders on the output of the environment (Lewin, 1939). So, the question of organization relates to how the environment interprets the standards of ethics in terms of what is right or wrong.

What is Diversity?

Diversity in the workforce includes all characteristics and involvements that define each of us as people (Cox, 1991).

Who is Citibank?

Citibank was founded back in 1812 with a capital of $2,000,000 (Citi)as a financial service provider for consumers. It started as the City Bank of New York, then changed the name to First Nation City Bank of New York. Citibank offered its clients services that included facilities such as personal loans, commercial loans, credit cards, mortgages, sub-prime lending, and various lines of credit. In the area of employment, it was a source of reproducing money from all aspects, and it was up to the management staff to keep this momentum going to yield continuous growth.

Citibank Practices- Behaviors as relates to the Shareholders.

From 2000 to 2017, Citigroup has been known for having a high-risk culture with a series of high-profile scandals that includes the management not preventing the illegal violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act (Mattera, 2017). Example of its high-risk culture include;

  1. Deceptive Business Practice- Citibank had failed to protect the rights of the customer by persuading borrowers to refinance their current debts to offer higher interest rates with the attachment of credit life insurance, and involved in business practices that linked to the captive of title reinsurance. Also, they kept borrowers in the dark about opportunities to avoid foreclosure and denied them access to information about the foreclosure relief program, inaccurate discriminated information to buyers when it sold off credit card debt and it also used law companies that altered court documents (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).
  2. Created abuse through mortgages by; CitiMortgage failed to fully comply with all HUD-FHA requirements in regards to certain loans which, required endorsements from FHA mortgage insurance. Under the DEL Program certain loans underwriting requirements contained in HUD’s manuals and mortgagee literature, and therefore were not entitled to FHA mortgage insurance under the DEL Program. As a result, CitiMortgage sent HUD-FHA certifications stating that certain loans qualified for FHA mortgage insurance when that was not true. HUD, therefore, suffered losses when those CitiMortgage-endorsed loans defaulted (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).
  3. Created abuse through toxic securities by; contributing to the creation of the 2008 financial crisis (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).
  4. With the creation of interest rate benchmark manipulation using relative values of different currencies, which duplicate the rates at which one currency is traded for another currency. Also, Citibank revealed confidential customer order data and trading positions, changed trading positions to accommodate the interests of the communal group, and agreed on trading plans to manipulate specific FX benchmark rates (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).
  5. Created banking violation by failing to detect or prevent employee misconduct related to FX sales, trading, and quality control (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).
  6. Created accounting fraud or deficiencies by helping Enron to mislead its investors by portraying necessary loan proceeds as cash from operating activities (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).
  7. Created anti-money-laundering deficiencies by intentionally failing to preserve an effective anti-money laundering compliance program with suitable policies, measures, and controls to guard against money laundering and willfully failing to file Suspicious Activity Reports (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).
  8. Violating the wage and hour act by a misemploying exemption to workers stating each was a salaried employee and overtime compensation was also refused, Citibank failed to maintain the records for the forty-hour week period as required by federal wage laws (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).

However, Citibank favorable position is related to the excellent benefits package of paying twenty dollars a month for health, five-dollar dental and free life insurance. Nevertheless, Citibank paid a thirty-five percent commission rate for all collections and sales to employees with twenty percent given to all management that meet or exceeds the group or unit budget.

Results from the Survey

The Organizational Culture Assessment with a six dimension of the organizational culture and a four-point dimension in the diversity was given to three Citibank Employees. Participants were a convenience sample of employees from Citibank, with 3 participants (male N = 2, female N = 1) in total. However, the result revealed that the three employees shared the same vision about the organization being concentrated on doing things first by distinguishing itself externally with a high level of experimentation and individuality. The dominant characteristics are high score-on just getting the job done and contain a low score- being family orientated. The organizational leadership was high in a result-oriented focus, and the low scored on nurturing employees. The management of employees was high scored on risk-taking, and low scored on the security of employment. The organization glue was high scored on aggressiveness, and low scored on smooth-running. The strategic emphases were high scored on hitting stretch targets, and low scored on valued opportunities. The criteria for success were high scored on winning the marketplace and low scored on the development or training of employees. The total result indicated that the organization is more externally centered which is a market culture and the diversity remains to be the focus in the environment.

Areas in Need of Improvement

Citibank needs to improve by communicating value to employees, becoming authentic informal leaders, need to the ongoing cultural situation.

Recommendation for Improvement

Citibank should work with people who are already there by training the employee on the various laws that pertain to their positions. According to Cox (1991), values drive behaviors, and consequently, they also need to be affirmed by actions. It integrates into the attitude that makes an individual respond to the situation differently as regulated by the effectiveness of the leadership style. However, I think a compelling leader should; inspire and motivate others to the highest level of energy and eagerness to work. In this case, Citibank focal point consists of a revenue base plan that money is all that matter. The fact that agencies like the Federal trade commission, U.S Customer Protection has been involved with Citibank from 2000 to 2017 suggest that some actions must have prompted such an attention (Mattera, 2017). According to Lewin (1939), the hallmark of quality leadership is based on results that are vital to the behaviors needed to achieve success. Meanwhile, Citibank interpreted (Lewin, 1939) as a push to the max to drive the results (employees get a commission check) and a drop in performance leads to employee termination. It is the numbers (dollars coming into the company) that inspire and produces results, therefore; a blind eye is related to no eyes (keep the momentum going). Citibank would overlook monitored calls of agents violating the Fair Debt Collection Act by allowing them to threaten or harass customers by phone. Citibank chose to ignore this malpractice and only acted when either the Attorney General or Federal Government got a complaint from a customer which, Citibank assumed they were uneducated with the laws of the collection. This resulted in many lawsuits between 2000 and 2017 (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).

Citibank indeed has lots of problems, and they establish high standards of excellence for the workers. According to Bass (1994), leaders who provide their team with a clear sense of course and purpose tend to have more fulfilled and devoted employees. Although, Fielder (1976) implies that it is those types of leaders that should paint a clear viewpoint between the overall picture and the details of day-to-day actions (Fiedler, 1967). However, the situational theory of leadership suggests that no leadership style is the greatest (Hersey, 1969).  Therefore, the situation or task dictates the type of leadership or what strategy could work best for the situation at hand.

In this case, Citibank leadership should invest more attention to their mission statement which would impact on itsoperations. It is the leader’s responsibility to lead the change by altering the behaviour of the team. It is imperative for leaders to support the change in the organization consistently. Since culture change depends on behavior change, this relationship should be clearly understood. Therefore, employees must be trained on both communicating and the expectations of the new behaviors.

The company should create value and belief statements using employee focus groups by section, to place the mission, vision, and values into words that state their impact on each employee’s profession. Additionally, Citibank should also change the reward system to inspire the behaviors relevant to the anticipated or predetermined organizational culture. According to (Schein, 2004), the employer must engage workers to create a motivated environment that allows innovation and collaboration in the workplace.

Summary

Organizational Culture relates to the shared values in an organization. It controls and shapes the members of the organisation by fostering the behaviors of individuals inside the organization, controlling the standards of ethics within the organization,influencing the response of individuals on the various situations, and controlling the behaviors related to the interpretations of the environment (Dempsey, 2015). However, the organization system could vary from one organization to another and could be either integrated or grouped within the system. On the other hand, I view organization culture from the standpoint of creating a thriving work environment.

However, the organization must show the stakeholders the opportunity of existence by their valued inputs that relate to the corporate mission and statement, the practice of leading by exemplary ethical conduct, and by the company’s ability to release valuable information to the stakeholders on the output of the environment.

In my course of leadership, I have viewed Citibank from the position of afinancial floating manager. My position entailed moving from one area or country to another where the executives required my expertise. In such a position, I got to review or monitor calls for quality, evaluate all employees for compliance for federal, company, and state laws, hire and terminate employees, and protected the firm against lawsuits. During the monitoring process, I would listen to the employees and review their actions on an existing account and the employees would access the conversation and respond.

To my dismay, I discovered and encountered many problems with the company’s culture, diversity, and ethics. I was shocked to find out that most employees were not trained in line with the set federal and state laws or just ignored the laws in general. I believe that Citibank ought to create value and belief statements using employee focus groups by section, to put the mission, vision, and values into confrontations that state their influence on each employee’s profession. The firm should also change its reward system to inspire the behaviors relevant to the expected organizational culture (Bass, 1994). Citi should also work on improving its track records in matters regarding regulation and adhering to the law (Corporate Research Project of Good Jobs First, 2017).

Citi should change its ways or risk being folded or filing for bankruptcy. Too many lawsuits are eating into its margin and if this is left unchecked, the resulting legal problems will only lead to more money being used to settle fines and compensations. Citibank practices are guided by the leadership theory of See no evil, hear no evil which, money is the only thing that matters.

Dealing with Conflict in the workplace

Conflict in the workplace is the inevitable disagreement between involved parties. Most employees prefer to avoid it, in the hope the that situation will go away on its own. According to Ford (2002), the organization should look at the underlying cost of ailing managed or dysfunctional conflicts because, it hinders productivity, increase risk, escalates out of pocket cost, hinders the company from attaining the strategic goals. Ayoko et al. (2003) argue that conflict is not limited to one person, but it can affect the entire workplace environment. It can arise from any number of causes including:

1)    Management communication information inaccurately.

2)    Diversity and Inclusiveness- exclusion of value in the company

3)    Ego- is based off one assumption of a person thinking versus who the individual person is.

4)    Lack of collaboration- not working in the same directions to finish a task or a goal.

5)    Organizational changes

6)    Shifting of tasks- A manager passes off their work to another employee who has a different job description.

7)    A person who has displayed a lack of accountability at the job.

8)    No rewards system in place-Employees are told about the incentive but, no one is paying out the reward

9)    Lack of feedback- from the customer service survey pertaining to their experiences with employees.

10)  Failure to address a work-related performance issue

11)    Management not revealing the situation of the firm’s standing

12) Particular interest- have a personal investment in the matter at hand.

13)    Personality clashes-beliefs, and values are not in agreement.

14)     Disagreement about the appropriate approach to take to take to a problem.

Regardless of the source of the conflict, if issues are left unresolved then, it could lead to low productivity and morale for all involved. According to Robert Half INC (2017), senior managers are sidetracking with trying to negotiate peace amongst the employees. The survey report that consisted of 2,200 corporate executive officers (from Robert Half in the United States-Accountemps) spend an average of six hours a week which is, fifteen percent of their time managing conflict (Robert Half, 2017). The report indicated that most managers spend more time addressing workplace conflicts between employees instead of taking care of the core business functions.

This paper provides a critical analysis of two different conflict situation which, resulted in two different outcomes of win-win results in collaborate, and loss-loss results in avoiding.  The two organizational (leadership and work style) conflicts will be described from the two outcomes, and a comparison will be made based on the communication tools, and mediation strategies utilized. A decision will be rendered on the importance of the mediation strategies and planning by exploring the definition, communication, and tools used. Lastly, an analysis will be made on the second conflict to hypothetically determine a resolution to move it from a negative to a positive result.

Leadership Conflict Win-Win

Ms. Wanda Cargal is the Director of Resurgent Capital Service. The staff directly reporting to her consists of five managers: Tammy Bright, Nathan Jenkins, Laura Krupp, Etha Richards, and Marcus Holmes, each of whom have ten agents reporting to them. On the first day of each month, the client sends over a new budget and a goal for the company to hit. On this particular month, the client had given Wanda Cargal’s group a budget of $625,000 gross, equivalent to $25,000 in fees to be divided between the managers. Ms. Cargal had distributed the budget as listed below:

1.Tammy Bright’s group budget: $2500 in fees to be divided between 10 agents.

  1. Nathan Jenkins’ group budget: $2500 in fees to be divided between 10 agents.
  2. Laura Krupp’s group budget: $2500 in fees to be divided between 10 agents.
  3. Etha Richards’ group budget: $15000 in fees to be divided between 11 agents and one manager.
  4. Marcus Holmes’ group budget: $2500 in fees to be divided between 10 agents.

I was very upset to discover that my budget was more than my group was able to achieve. I asked Ms. Cargal why my budget was higher than that of the other managers, and she replied that she really needed my team and I to hit our budget as the rest of the managers never reached their goals. However, Ms. Cargal had failed to realize that a higher budget reduces the chances of my group receiving a bonus check. In addition, the bonus structure changes from 25 percent commission to 45 percent commission once the budget is reached. When the agents in my team found out about the low group budget, they called for a meeting with Ms. Cargal. I called her to schedule this meeting, and I was told to attend in two hours, which gave me time to prepare statements from my group about the impact this would have on them all. During the meeting, I expressed my concerns to Ms. Cargal that my group members would want to leave to a competitive company because the budget was unfair, making it impossible for them to earn a bonus. Ms. Cargal looked at the responses from the employees and quickly called the rest of the managers to join us in the meeting. She upheld my group’s concerns of unfairness and changed the budgets for all the managers to $5000.00 in fees for the month, effective immediately. She then announced the changes over the loudspeaker, and my group started thanking her and jumping up and down for joy.

Poor Conflict Resolution

Marcy and Steve are a married couple who both work in the collection department. Marcy was hired five years before Steve. Steve is a collection manager, Marcy is a collection agent, and they work for different directors. They had been married for five years prior to Steve’s employment. Steve had lost his job at another collection agency, and Marcy had asked Ms. Patterson, the Director of Auto Collection and Marcy’s best friend, to hire him. Two weeks after he was hired, Steve was given a group, and the ability to hire and terminate employees. After a careful review of his current employees, he decided to make some transformations to secure the success of his group. He fired two male employees, who had never hit their project goals, and hired two female employees. One of the new hires had no experience in collection but had worked in served customers and collected money as a private dancer in the past. Both the new employees went through two weeks’ collection training with the corporate attorney.

When it was time for them to go out onto the collection floor, the two employees were assigned to a lead assistant manager. During their side-by-side training with the assistant manager, Steve kept interrupting them by bringing water and lunch for the ex-dancer. News started to spread around the company that Steve was having an affair with her. Ms. Patterson approached Marcy with this news, who went over to the ex-dancer and threatened her, telling her to leave her husband alone or face a fight. Steve heard that Marcy had been behaving inappropriately towards the agent and making threats of violence. He called his wife to his office for a meeting. The two could be seen arguing through the window, and Marcy was throwing pens and papers at Steve. All the employees on the collection floor could hear the argument and stopped what they were doing to look. Ms. Patterson also heard the argument and walked in on their conversation. Both parties left the office, and Marcy walked back to the ex-dancer, punching her in the face. She then walked back to her desk and continued with her work. The ex-dancer went to Steve, her boss, and got the day off. All three parties returned the following day, but the situation has since been escalating on a daily basis, and the senior management team and human resources are avoiding the issue by ignoring them all. The ex-dancer is now trying to sue the company. All the employees want to know what went wrong and how to correct the issues.

Communication-Comparison of the Two Conflicts

In any organization, good communication is vital for workplace success. According to Nosek and Duran (2017), without communication skills, we are not able to let others understand how we feel, think, or want to achieve from the conversation. In the conflict, the communication styles are: 1) Passive (win-lose communication)-when people are willing to express their concerns, and desire in an authentic way. The passive communicator always leaves the other person feeling annoyed, disordered, and wary. 2) Assertive (win-win communication)- when communication is expressed in a healthy, non-insistent, and non-defensive way.

This form of communication helps to encourage a positive response while creating a positive relationship.3) Passive-Aggressive (lose-lose communication)- face people in passive way but, tend to display aggression when no one is around and, often seek revenge later. 4)Aggressive (win/lose communication)- aggressive communicator often blame and make accusations about others. This style is utilized when people feel the threatened and the focus is centered on the negative characteristics of the person than the situation at hand.

The Communication Error in Leadership Conflict #1

In the first conflict of communication style, Ms. Wanda Cargal had expected Etha Richards to know what she was thinking without making clear the reason for the unfair distribution of the budget between the managers. Until the meeting, she had no idea how the entire group felt about this and the consequences that had arisen from her actions. She had been confident that the manager would go along with her plan because she was a team player. However, Ms. Cargal had forgotten two of the golden rules of being a leader: leading by example and being fair at all times. It took the meeting with the managers to make her realize that her actions should have been adequately communicated to all groups to see if they were happy with the situation. This type of assertive communication is known as win-win communication.

The Communication Error in Inappropriately Handled Conflict #2

In the second conflict of communication style, Steve had not taken any action when the employees started spreading rumors about his non-existent relationship with the new employee. The talks had reached Marcy, causing her embarrassment and humiliation because it appeared that her husband was cheating on her with his employee. Marcy and Steve had failed to validate the rumors as either true or false, leading Marcy to believe that the ex-dancer was the problem. The problems between Steve, Marcy, and the ex-dancer reached boiling point and then continued to escalate on a daily basis. Even the senior management was avoiding the conflict by refusing to discuss the disruptive behaviors on the collection floor. This style of communication is known as passive-aggressive, in which everyone loses.

Interpersonal-Effective Communication

The effective interpersonal communication must begin with:

  1. Awareness by gathering feedback.
  2. Always think about how the others person feels before acting or speaking.
  3. Determine the desire of the win-win outcome.
  4. Collect facts to avoid biases.
  5. Practice a peaceful approach in the tone.
  6. Listen as much as possible to the speaker.
  7. Do not expect anything in return.

Interpersonal communication is essential to the relationships in the organisation because a lack of communication can hinderprocess innovation and high-performance work within an organization. According to Nosek and Duran (2017), providing effective communication skills are the responsibility of all parties involved. Rahim and Magner (1995) concurs by positing thatsufficient cause for peer-to-peer (interpersonal relationship) form of communication would create equally respectful relationships that can improve employee satisfaction and boost productivity. Effective communication involves three fundamentals:

  1. a) A Sender
  2. b) A receiver
  3. c) A message of understanding.

Communication is complete when the receiver understands the message sent by the sender and acts or responds in the way expected by the sender.

Accessing the Tools- different views of conflicts

Conflicts in an organization are now learned by how it is managed but, the roles of conflict in organizations are viewed by 1. Traditional View -leads to failure and considered to be dysfunctional and destructive (Khaiyat, 2016). The understanding is focused on win-lose outcomes. The conflict comes from the failure of a manager and views are dominating.

  1. Human Relations View or Managed View- recognizes and manages as having characterizes as:
  2. a) A member of the team b) contributes to the output to the physical capacity of willingness to work.
  3. c) Ability to not have an economic reward in the willingness to work.
  4. d) ability to conduct social work without a formal rule of principle by encouraging the formation of groups, strengthen formal groups, build channels for communication, develop a relation-oriented style leadership, and the participation in decision making resulting in more workers output (Khaiyat, 2016).
  5. Interactionist View- see conflict as a positive and required:

According to (Khaiyat, 2016), traditional views are bad for the company and leads to failures. This causes a negative effect on the performances. Traditional views are not allowed in the company, and a manager must suppress these using an authoritative approach to get rid of the negativity (Khaiyat, 2016). The human relations view is also called the manager view which recognizes the reality of conflict. The manager in this process tries to manage it efficiently instead of conquering or totally eradicating it. The Interactionist view- encourages conflict as a rational and holds the lowest level of conflict. The benefits are made through the effectiveness of the group or individual through, adaptability, responsiveness, and flexibility to organizational changes.

View of Conflict 1 and 2-Tool

The first (leadership) conflict was an interactionist view because it inspired the Etha Richards group to speak up against the unfairness to perform effectively. While the human relations view recognized conflict, the interactionist view inspires conflicts on the notation that a peaceful, calm, and cooperative group is desired for a change in modernization.

The second (Inappropriately handled) conflict was a traditional view because employees rumored that conflict was bad and had to be avoided at all cost. It was treated negatively and discoursed with such rumored terms as savagery, elimination, and illogicality to reinforce its negative allegation. The conflict had a dysfunctional result because of the lack of transparency, poor communication, and trust between employees due to the behaviors that created the conflict.

Mediation

Mediation is a process to bring a disagreement to a close. The process with leadership conflict (#1) started with communications of the company’s expectations of what is allowed and not allowed with the procedures to resolve the dispute? The employee is told what will happen and how they will be protected. A step process for dispute resolution is given to ensure the following goals (Coleman, 2014):

Step1- earliest Intervention- empowers and train workers to identify disputes in the workplace to help intervene early.

Step 2- Informal Complaint and Negotiations-identifying the sources of the conflict to obtain a possible solution before making any decision. An informal negotiation should take place to calm the employees involved in the conflict.

In the Inappropriately handled conflict (#2), the issue was totally ignored and escalated without mediation or a resolution to the problem.

Conflict #2 of Inappropriately Handled-Transformation (if conducted differently)

Steve should have refrained from making personal suggestions (harassment) to his new employee who was already under supervision of his assistant manager. He should have also handled his problems with his wife at home in a manner that it would not interfere with the work environment. Marcy and Steve shouldget counseling for their marriage. If the conflict persisted then either of the two should leave the company for a peaceful.

Examples of Studies conducted

According to Prowse (2017), the average costfor legal defense that a company pays is $100,000 plus an additional $4.5 million in lost production time. According to Blazejak (2017), CFOs spend 15% or six hours a week in conflict mediation. The measurement of a conflict depends on mediation strategies, conflict style and conflict resolution skills utilized to address the issue (Coleman, 2014). Conflict is measured on the degree of the disagreement.

The range of the behaviors signifies this seriousness as it relates to the company’s code of conduct, federal, and state compliance- regulation laws.

Legal Cost

According to Prowse (2017), the average price a company pays on legal defense is $100,000 which equates to 73 percent of production cost. The challenge comes when comparing the relationship between the employee and the conflict in general. Computing the Company’s conflict-related cost must be from a quantitative and qualitative data to build on the related employee conflict, and cost as it applies to the fair indication. This information would be a key to resolving issues before it comes to a legal, turnover, absenteeism, grievance filing, and any other workplace conflicts but, most company’s do not have this source of data.

Time Spent on Conflict Issues

According to Blazejak (2017), CFOs spend 15% or six hours a week engaging in conflict resolution. The break-down of conflict issues on time includes:

25% of participants spend 10% to 14% of their time on conflict resolution,

22% spend 15% to 24%, -on conflict resolution

15% spend 5% to 9%, -on conflict resolution

13% spend 25% to 49%- on conflict resolution

9% spend less than 5%, and 4% spend over 50% of their time managing conflicts.

Turnover Cost

According to Davis (2018), the average turnover in a business is 16% off a two-year period. The question is how does that affect the firm’s bottom line? In the research, the average skilled and expertise required a person with knowledge in that position stood at 42%. Training a non-experienced person for the same task required about 200 hours. The U.S. enterprise-size business cost in productivity loss averaged $4.5 million (Davis, 2018).

 

Recommendations

Understanding the actual cost of conflict resolutions on a business is critical. This can be done by connecting the influence of conflict management to employee engagement, time spent, money, performance, productivity, reputation, with the business effectiveness.

Transform the traditional view of the grievance policy to a resolution that delivers significant benefits by taking on a values and personal base approach for managing conflict. The resolution should be centered on building communication skills, trust, and inspiring collaborative problem-solving.

This can also be done by aligning the business core value with leadership capabilities, management behaviors, strategies, and employee practice. This will help to manage the behaviors to support the company’s mission and values.

Engage with the employees by communication to make sure there is no misunderstanding the implementation of managing conflict policy.

Conclusion

The company should reflect on its mission statement and commit to negotiations aimed at handling and resolving conflicts effectively and by so doing adopt a conflict resolution process that provides substance in our social order of well-being and contributes to the growth and development. It should reinforce its core values by:

1)  Showing the importance of great relationships being vital to the success of a company and its impact on the creativity, productivity, and adaptableness, as well as the quality of a natural workplace life.

2) Communication is important to the relationships because a lack of communication can hinder process innovation and high-performance work within organization. Providing effective communication skills are the responsibility of all parties involved. Effective communication calls for peer-to-peer (interpersonal relationship) form of communication which would create equally respectful relationships that will not only improve employee satisfaction but boost productivity as well.

Effective communication involves three fundamentals:

  1. a) A Sender
  2. b) A Receiver
  3. c) A Message of Understanding.

Communication is complete when the receiver understands, feels the message was interrupted correctly, or the behavior is aligned with the message of the sender.

The company’s core mission should consist of mediating and enabling the resolution of workplace disputes and problems in total impartiality, discretion, and to the satisfaction of all the involved parties. It is essential for senior managers and human resource practitioners to receivetraining on the use of bargaining power because competitive (distributive) can be a win-lose situation which can hinder the success for the company. The idea is to create a win-win by using the cooperative conflict (integrative) (Coleman, 2014) power in situation which can be used as a dependent or independent need and create value.

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Running outside (Pros and Cons) vs Running on a treadmill (Pros and Cons)

Introduction

Often, patients find themselves in situations whereby they are advised to engage in a workout as part of the treatment and recovery process. One such physical exercise involves running. In a related vein, individuals who seek to keep a fit body often engage in running. Running is considered to provide a person with several notable health benefits including those related to cardiovascular functioning (Ogueta-Alday, Morante, & García-López, 2013). However, many such persons tend to face the dilemma of having to choose whether to run outside or inside using a treadmill. Advancements in technology have made it increasingly possible for individuals to use treadmills to improve their physical health (Hitchings & Latham, 2016). The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis that compares the benefits of running outside with those of using the treadmill. In doing so, the exposition also highlights the significant shortcomings associated with either alternative.

Pros of Running Outside

Running outdoors is considered to have some benefits. For instance, it has been argued that running outside allows an individual to burn relatively more body fat as compared to using the treadmill. While running outside, a person has to make quick and sudden starts, as well as stops, in addition to changing the terrain from time to time (Heesch & Slivka, 2015). Such an individual is also likely to find himself or herself running against the wind. All these eventualities make running outside a more engaging activity. (Heesch & Slivka, 2015). The individual burns more calories as a result. Furthermore, running outside tends to be more demanding for a person. In particular, such an individual has to complete a certain physical distance as part of realizing the goal associated with the physical exercise. The need to achieve the goal is more demanding as compared to that of a treadmill where the individual can simply switch off the machine and get off thereby bringing the exercise to an end (Yeh, Stone, & Davids, 2017). Running outside also enjoys a person to enjoy the scenery in addition to leveraging the option of using different routes every other day. Therefore, it is evident that running outdoors has notable advantages.

Cons of Running Outside

Despite having significant benefits, running outside is also considered to have a few drawbacks. For example, a person who chooses to run outside has to deal with the prospect of maneuvering unpredictable terrains. The process can be unnecessarily challenging for an individual who would have otherwise preferred to utilize a uniform surface for the physical exercise (Yeh et al., 2017). Moreover, the weather plays a significant role in determining whether the physical activity would be successful and even whether an individual would be able to run in the first place. Unexpected changes in the weather could result in a person having to postpone the exercise and consequently, miss out on its health benefits (Weng & Chiang, 2014). Running is beneficial as an exercise when it is performed regularly and not once in a while. Weather disruptions could, therefore, have a negative impact on the ability of an individual to leverage the benefits of the exercise. Also, it is worth noting that running outside is more likely to result in a less effective workout. The case is especially prevalent in instances whereby the individual lacks access to a device that would otherwise notify them when they slow down (Heesch & Slivka, 2015). Understanding these shortcomings is, therefore, necessary for those who wish to consider the option of running outside.

 

 

Pros of Running on the Treadmill

An alternative to running outside would involve conducting the physical exercise indoors using a treadmill. The option, just as it is the case with that of running outdoors, has various advantages. For example, using the treadmill allows one to avoid the disruption that would otherwise be occasioned by unexpected changes in the weather (Keniger, Gaston, & Fuller, 2013). Such an individual would be in a position to proceed with the physical exercise irrespective of the existing weather condition. Running indoors also allows one to avoid unpredictable terrains while also monitoring factors such as the pace, distance, and calories (Keniger et al., 2013). The device allows the user to view their progress and even set a pace that is in line with their goals. A person training for a specific event could set a pace on the treadmill and use the machine to achieve the same. In a similar vein, an individual seeking to enhance his or her stamina endurance could also use the device to determine the ideal pace. Using the treadmill also allows the individual to avoid distractions in the environment which tend to slow down one’s pace (Yeh et al., 2017). Nonetheless, a user who prefers to train while also undertaking other activities such as watching the television would find the treadmill to be the appropriate option. Running indoors certainly has several benefits.

Cons of Running on the Treadmill

The option of using the treadmill also has a few notable shortcomings. For instance, running indoors can be boring for some. While having a constant environment helps an individual to avoid unpredictable changes in the terrain, it can also result in the exercise being tedious and lacking the necessary stimulation (Ogueta-Alday et al., 2013). Using the treadmill also requires that a person invests in such a device which can be costly for some. An alternative would involve using the machines owned by a local gym which would require that the individual pays a fee before accessing the same. Running indoors also eliminates other essential factors which are considered to be useful in helping an individual to maximize the full benefits of such an exercise. The wind is one such factor and persons who choose to use the treadmill do not experience the resistance that would otherwise be caused by running against the wind (Hitchings & Latham, 2016). Additionally, it has been noted that the cushioned surface that is typically used on conventional treadmills exposes a person to the risk of exerting undue stress on their hip, ankle, and knee joints (Heesch & Slivka, 2015). Such pressure could result in the individual experiencing injuries during the training. Persons who use the option of running indoors, therefore, need to take into account the various drawbacks associated with the same.

Conclusion

Running is undoubtedly good for an individual’s health. The physical exercise allows one to improve his or her overall cardiovascular health while also enhancing their stamina endurance. In many cases, a person may find it challenging to decide whether they should run outside or indoors using a treadmill. Each one of the alternatives has unique advantages, as well as notable shortcomings. Running outside allows an individual to leverage benefits that not accessible to those who choose to run indoors. Such benefits include those related to the person’s ability to burn more calories and to utilize different terrains. On the other hand, running indoors allows one to avoid unpredictable changes in the weather, as well as in the terrain. Clinicians, therefore, need to advise their clients accordingly regarding the benefits and drawbacks of each option.

 

 

 

 

References

Heesch, M. W., & Slivka, D. R. (2015). Running performance, pace strategy, and thermoregulation differ between a treadmill and indoor track. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(2), 330-335.

Hitchings, R., & Latham, A. (2016). Indoor versus outdoor running: understanding how recreational exercise comes to inhabit environments through practitioner talk. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 41(4), 503-514.

Keniger, L. E., Gaston, K. J., & Fuller, R. A. (2013). What are the benefits of interacting with nature? International journal of environmental research and public health, 10(3), 913-935.

Ogueta-Alday, A., Morante, J. C., & García-López, J. (2013). Validation of a new method to measure contact and flight times during treadmill running. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(5), 1455-1462.

Weng, P. Y., & Chiang, Y. C. (2014). Psychological restoration through indoor and outdoor leisure activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(2), 203-217.

Yeh, H. P., Stone, J. A., & Davids, K. (2017). Physical and emotional benefits of different exercise environments designed for treadmill running. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7), 752.

 

 

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Gender Diversity-the relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value

Research Background

The quest gender diverse workforce is increasing at a rapid pace. Many organizations, especially in developed nations, are experiencing an unprecedented increase in gender diversity (Nielsen & Madsen, 2017). For example, the representation of women in the US labor force has increased significantly over the years with more than 48 percent of U.S workers being women (Nater & Sczesny, 2016). For instance, the number of women workers has risen from 32.7 to 56.8 % between 1948 and 2016. This represents about 74.6 million women working in the public civilian sector.  Besides, more women are entering the workforce with many of them taking up leadership and management roles, a fete that was quite difficult over five decades ago. Potvin, Burdfield-Steel, Potvin and Heap (2018) estimate that this trend is likely to continue into the coming decades since more are taking up leadership roles and opportunities in organizations. The US has comprehensive laws that seek to prohibit discrimination of women in the workplaces. For example, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963 are examples of laws being implemented by the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to ensure women are protected and not discriminated.

The increasing number of women recruited into organizations has attracted the attention of researchers who have attempted to assess whether the different gender influences the individual or organizational performance (Hitka et al. 2015). Early studies suggested that gender diversity was a significant source of competitive advantage arguing that it introduced a range of skills set they could not get with single-gender representations, who were mostly men (Jain & Bhardwaj, 2014). However, recent studies have questioned this optimism of the significance of gender diversity with theories and empirical reviews suggesting that it presents both positive and negative effects (Lee & Ames, 2017). For example, the organization’s resource-based view suggests that gender diversity and performance positively relate while social identity theory finds a negative correlation between the same factors. Although many studies have suggested a positive relationship between job performance and gender inclusivity (Lee & Ames, 2017; Jain & Bhardwaj, 2014; Liu, Chiang, Fehr, Xu & Wang, 2017), the relationship between a diverse gender workforce and employee satisfaction with corporate value remains hugely ignored. While many practitioners and researchers prioritize increasing the number of women, there are growing labor concerns of the levels of job satisfaction arising from such decisions.

The decline in job satisfaction and the rise in turnover have been identified as significant problems in the workforces of many countries around the world. Low-job satisfaction and lofty turnover are pricey to the entity in terms of resources and loss of skills and proficiencies that may have taken years to develop (Nielsen & Madsen, 2017). With the labor force experiencing other challenges such as a shrinking workforce and the aging population, the understanding of the gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value is of great significance (Ralston, Russell & Egri, 2018). Therefore, this research seeks to explore how gender diversity relates to job satisfaction and the intentions of turnover of both male and female employees.

Statement of Research Problem

Given that the pursuit of excellence and the need to improve business performance are critical features of any institutions, many organizations strive to great lengths to attain their fundamental objectives. Diverse gender workplace is one of the emerging trends towards the accomplishment of the firm’s goals with the presumption that it improves employee performance. While many studies have explored how gender diversity relates to the firm’s financial performance, little research exists on the influence of diverse gender on job satisfaction with organizational value (Rattan & Dweck, 2018). Although the improvement in gender diversity has been found to improve organizational performance, there is growing uncertainty on its relationship with job satisfaction. However, Sabharwal (2014) argues that gender diversity leads to the emergence of sub-groups that may lead to gender salience if not managed well-managed. This categorization and assessment of employees based on group characteristics or traits could impair communication and the engagement of employees. Besides, the conflicts created within these groups could also decrease strategic consensus and hinder the effective decision-making process with adverse effects on job satisfaction with corporate value.

The increased attraction of gender diversity and its relationship to employee job satisfaction with from practitioners and researchers stems from the emergence of socially significant categories in the organization. These groups tend to be oriented towards sub-categories such as age, ethnicity, sexual orientation, race, et cetera, which further impact the consequences of improved gender representations on the employees’ job satisfaction (Ward & Forker, 2015). From the firm’s perspective, Nielsen and Madsen (2017) found out that a diverse gender workforce could trigger innovation and creativity since the pooling of a mix of perspectives and experiences. However, the views on gender diversity at the workplace differ, and the belief that more women in the labor workforce would improve the soaring inequality and promote innovation has been challenged by insights from studies on organizational demographics (Ward & Forker, 2015). For example, the results from the analysis of the organizational demographics point out that diversity often reduces the cohesiveness, conflicts, and hostilities among co-workers from different groups thus leading to low job satisfaction. When these conflicting positions and attitudes go unmediated, it results in turnover intentions and the inability of employees to enrich one another. Through a comprehensive qualitative evaluation of the perspectives of employees on gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value, it would be possible to analyze how gender diversity impacts job satisfaction for both men and women across different occupational settings and contexts.

Literature Review

The participation of women has increased significantly around the world. In the United States, for instance, the participation stands at over 48.6 percent while in the United Kingdom it stands at 45.8 percent. Inevitably, this transformation has increased gender diversity in workplaces which in turn has facilitated labor market changes, demographic developments, and various regulatory measures (Avanzi et al., 2015). Despite the growth in the literature on diverse gender workplace and its influence on organizational performance, the investigation on the link between organizational gender diversity and the employee’s job satisfaction with corporate value is relatively limited. Several sociological and psychological studies have attempted to explain the differences among groups in organizations along gender and attitudes and their influences on the employee well-being and attitude (Brummelhuis & Greenhaus, 2018; Carapinha et al., 2017; Chen & Lin, 2016). The following review shows, in the preceding paragraphs, the link between gender diversity and employee’s job satisfaction with corporate value.

According to Nielsen and Madsen (2017) gender diversity refers to a “sexual heterogeneity in the workplace” (p.79). Based on this definition, a company with equal representation of men and women is termed as highly gender-diversified workplaces while those with low gender diversity are those with homogenous gender representation. Researchers on organizational demographics have suggested that workforce composition can have a remarkable effect on the performance and satisfaction of employees (Curșeu & Schruijer, 2017). This results from the influence of social interactions and group processes which impacts the attitudes, well-being, and employee performance. Rahman, Akhter, and Khan (2017) define job satisfaction as an emotional state that is agreeable and ensues from the accomplishment of job principles. Job satisfaction encompasses the assessment of job circumstances, including workload, financial outcomes such as pay/wages, appropriate supervision, job security, et cetera (Rahman, Akhter & Khan, 2017). Essentially, these factors have been associated with different degrees of satisfaction depending on an employee perception and expectations.

Raziq and Maulabakhsh (2015) identify the determinants of job satisfaction as the job conditions, co-workers, communication, the work environment, policies, and the level of approval from organizational managers. The interplay between these factors determines the degree of an employee’s satisfaction. Previous researchers have delved into how gender differences influence organizational performance. However, there are significant disagreements on how work composition influences employees, especially on job performance and satisfaction. For instance, Nielsen and Madsen (2017) cite three seminal works conducted by Blalock (1967), Blau (1977), and Kanter (1977) as foundation for the contemporary understanding of disagreements in recent research. According to Blau and Kanter, as cited in Nielsen and Madsen (2017), the relative proportion of various groups in an organization affects the levels of interactions between the members of various groups. This suggests that there is the likelihood for a better interaction amongst the groups if the sizes of the groups are similar. These authors contend that more diverse gender organizations tend to have reduced conflict among groups hence improved the likelihood of employees highly satisfied with their jobs and responsibilities.

However, Blalock’s perspectives pointed to the increase in conflicts between the minority and majority groups. In this view, the threat posed by the minority to the majority group increases with the minority group’s size. The disagreements highlighted in these three seminal works shows in several diversity works of literature (Shaban, 2016; Reguera-Alvarado, de Fuentes & Laffarga, 2015; Ali, Metz & Kulik, 2015; Nielsen & Madsen, 2017). Ellison and Mullin (2014), for instance, contend that diverse gender organization work better, but does not satisfy the fundamental needs of the employees. They found out that employees working in gender diverse organizations would report lower job satisfaction with corporate value. This suggests that employees are more cooperative in homogenous work settings. These disagreements on the contributions of gender diversity to employee well-being and corporate value epitomize the reasons why there are growing challenges regarding.

Gender Diversity Policies and Job Satisfaction with Corporate Value

Gender diversity has a tremendous impact on employee job satisfaction in an organization, especially for the female workers. In a research investigating the effect of gender differences on female employees in Pakistan, Fatima, et al. (2018) established that women encounter more barriers in companies compared to their male co-workers. Consequently, their satisfaction is not influenced by how many they are but how the organization treats and values them (Faniko, Ellemers & Derks, 2016). For example, most women have few chances for promotion even when their performance surpasses that of their male colleagues (Gupta, Han, Mortal, Silveri & Turban, 2018). Consequently, females experience fewer opportunities that could improve their job satisfaction in spite of the increase in gender diversity.

Gender diversity policies are considered a source of competitive advantage if well-implemented in the organization. It helps to create a favorable work environment which optimizes the available human capital to achieve the firm’s aims and objectives (Tisserant, Wagner & Barth, 2013). For this reason, an organization should implement a gender diversity support framework before initiating the process of increasing diversity (Windscheid, Bowes-Sperry, Mazei & Morner, 2015). Several studies have identified ways in which to increase gender diversity (Khan & Vieito, 2013; Olsen, Good, Towns & Choi, 2017; (Nakagawa & Schreiber, 2014; Schwab, Werbel, Hofmann & Henriques, 2015). Identity blindness is one of the initiatives found to crucial in increasing the number of women in corporations.  This strategy seeks to ensure that human resources practices ignore the demographic characteristics that disadvantage women during recruitment and selection. However, biases and stereotypes still hinder the implementation of the process (Daniels, Neale & Greer, 2017). Therefore, Nielsen and Madsen (2017) argued that identify blindness initiatives does not facilitate the increase in gender diversity initiatives. Hence, the author suggests the application of identity conscious initiatives where the women are provided with extra resources and preferential treatment to increase their numbers in the organization.

An organization’s gender diversity position and initiatives are essential parts of corporate value (Dembek, York & Singh, 2018).  Firms communicate their gender diversity initiatives through brochures, programs, or websites that indicate to prospective employees how they might be treated and the working conditions within the company (Windscheid, Bowes-Sperry, Mazei & Morner, 2015). Nielsen and Madsen (2017) demonstrated that the search for diversity statements and initiatives by prospective employees is based on the perceptions that it influences job satisfaction with the corporate value. However, it is not clear to what the diversity statements communicated by institutions affect the selection process because employers have often joined firms with negative gender diversity statements (Tisserant, Wagner & Barth, 2013). Windscheid, Bowes-Sperry, Mazei, and Morner, (2015) suggest that several factors moderate how diversity issues relate to the people’s  intentions to pursue an employment opportunity and ultimate job satisfaction levels after being hired. For example, the perceptions of the firm’s level of diversity accountability and the individual differences moderate the nature of gender diversity initiatives that should be implemented by the organization.

Organizations are under increasing pressure to increase gender diversity due to the legal requirements and quota conventions that have become a crucial aspect of contemporary management. Because of the requirements for a diverse gender workforce, however, many companies are relying on the prescriptive gender diversity approaches, such as preferential treatment, that negatively affects the attractiveness of the institution to potential employees while also reducing the level of job satisfaction for existing workers (Terjesen, Couto & Francisco, 2015). Windscheid, et al., (2015) refers to this scenario as an “organizational gender (diversity) paradox” (p.11) since the firm’s initiatives meant to achieve a diverse gender workforce are perceived negatively by the employees. It would be correct to suggest that most women and their co-workers do not perceive the preferential treatment initiatives as effective in enhancing their job satisfaction with corporate value. Notably, most of them believe that it’s merely an approach to promote the firm’s image and reputation as a gender inclusive environment, yet very little attention is given to initiatives that enhance employee job satisfaction with corporate value.

Shaban (2016) views gender diversity as a “double-edged sword” (p.77) since it is a source of great strength for an institution while also being a major source of weakness. The advantages of gender inclusiveness are often acknowledged through cognitive outcomes such as creativity (Fujimoto, Härtel & Azmat, 2013). The negative consequences, however, can be seen in terms of the negative behaviors that affect the social outcomes such as cohesion, higher staff turnover, relational conflicts, and stereotypes about the dissimilarities amongst the employees (Lauring & Selmer, 2013). Ali, Metz, Kulik (2015) contend that adequate formal training is necessary for the employees to understand the problems of diversity.

Management of Gender Diverse Workforce and Improvement in Job Satisfaction with Corporate Value

Effective management of gender inclusive workforce requires particular skills and competencies from managers. It entails the cultivation of respect, understanding, tolerance, and the acknowledgment that men and women have significant differences. Consequently, managers need to alter their attitudes and values to promote effective gender inclusion (Sabharwal, 2014). The initial step should begin with the commitment to improve diversity by developing the “correct performance and business-oriented attitudes and the correct ethical values that allow them to make appropriate use of the diverse workforce” (Shaban, 2016, p.79). Thereafter, the management should promote diversity awareness where people become aware of the differences in attitudes, values, and behaviors. Shaban (2016) recommends the use of programs that reveal the stereotypes and biases and positively transform them to enhance understanding and, in turn, improved job satisfaction with corporate value. This will require that the company values gender diversity as an essential part of its objectives by continually promoting gender inclusiveness awareness through the selection, recruitment, and other human resources processes (Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara & Ting-Ding, 2016). Moreover, company managers can also reward employees who have effectively managed gender inclusiveness because the recognition of such contributions facilitates greater responsiveness.

Organizational leaders play a crucial role in promoting gender diversity. Reguera-Alvarado, de Fuentes, and Laffarga (2015) assert that gender bias in institutions epitomizes poor management. According to the agency theory, for instance, an increase in diversity has the potential for improving the firm’s performance. While many scholars have assessed this variable in terms of financial outcomes, it can also be examined in terms of the satisfaction of employees with corporate value (Marinova, Plantenga & Remery, 2015). The agency focuses on the relational conflicts that affect the attainment of a cohesive working unit such as gender bias and stereotypes (Rattan & Dweck, 2018). Most of these conflicts, according to Reguera-Alvarado, et al., (2015), are associated with internal issues such as weak corporate governance structures which are crucial drivers of improved job satisfaction among employees. Therefore, gender diversity increases the value for the company by reducing the conflicts and costs associated with problems.

The primary focus on gender diversity stems from the gender imbalances that routinely occur in various companies in several geographic locations. Researchers and practitioners, therefore, ought not only to look at the incorporation of women but also their participation and welfare during the continued presence within the workforce (Ali, Metz & Kulik, 2015). Although more women have been recruited over the last four decades, their satisfaction levels with their responsibilities and corporate value are still lagging behind (Fujimoto, Härtel & Azmat, 2013). Therefore, companies should consider implementing policies that promote appropriate gender diversity attitudes and eliminate the barriers to women in the organization (Marinova, Plantenga & Remery, 2015). As per Lauring and Selmer (2013) argument, job satisfaction relates more with assigned responsibilities and not just to the employment of more women in the organization. This suggests that the roles assigned to the women should be commensurate with their training, experience, expectations, and remuneration.

The Existing Gap in Literature

Diverse gender workforces and the presumed improvement in financial performance have made some researchers contemplate how gender diversity relates to job satisfaction. While the economic results seem to be improving, there is little understanding of the association between gender inclusiveness and job satisfaction with the firm’s performance or corporate value. Tisserant, Wagner, and Barth (2013) argue that women and men bring different skills and competencies that promote creativity and innovation hence improving the corporate value. In this perspective, the heterogeneous groups are crucial drivers for growth and development of the firms yet little evidence exists on the correlation between gender diversity and job satisfaction with corporate performance (Nozadi, Spinrad, Johnson & Eisenberg, 2018). Similarly, Reguera-Alvarado et al., (2015) conclude that further inquiry is needed to identify the correlation between the variables. Because of the identified gaps in the literature, this qualitative study aims to analyze the perspectives of employees and human resource managers on how a diverse gender workforce relates to an employee’s job satisfaction with corporate value.

Purpose of the Study

This qualitative research seeks to assess how gender diversity relates to employee’s job satisfaction with corporate value.

Proposed Questions for the Research

  1. What is the role of gender diversity on the employee’s level of job satisfaction with corporate value?
  2. What are the main contributions of gender diversity towards employee job satisfaction?
  3. How does gender diversity facilitate the accomplishment of corporate value?
  4. Does gender diversity relate positively to member of staff job satisfaction with corporate value irrespective of gender?

Research Hypothesis

H1: There are significant differences among companies with a higher number of women than men.

H2: Gender diversity in a company improves job satisfaction with corporate value, especially among the women.

H3: Several factors limit a company’s quest to increase female representation in an organization’s gender diversity in company management.

Research Objectives

The primary aim of this inquiry is to assess how gender diversity relates to job satisfaction with corporate value. It will also assess the role of gender diversity on the employee’s level of job satisfaction with corporate value and how gender diversity facilitates the accomplishment of corporate value. The research will also seek to explore whether gender diversity relates positively to employee job satisfaction with corporate value irrespective of an employee’s gender.

The significance of the Study

Scholars on firm demographics have argued that the composition of gender in the workplace influences organizational behavior and satisfaction. As stated by Nielsen and Madsen (2017), “there is a wide range of meaning and consequences of workplace diversity, including gender diversity” (p.80). However, recent studies on the composition of gender in the workplace do not agree on the influence of the composition on employee satisfaction. According to Blalock (1967), as cited in Nielsen and Madsen (2017), the existence of a minority group in an organization causes hostilities which could pose a significant threat to the majority. This implies that the threat of a minority group grows with its size. Consequently, a raise in the number of women in an organization could translate to increase conflicts and hostilities among the groups (Ellemers, 2014). This study, therefore, will provide more insights into the factors and contexts related to gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value. This qualitative assessment concentrates on the perspectives of both male and female workers concerning the character of the relationship between gender diversity and job satisfaction with corporate value (Ellemers, 2014). The study will also shed more light into how the organizations treat both and female employees because job satisfaction does not only rely on how many women but also how they are integrated into the firm and their relationships with co-workers.

Proposed Study Participants and the Inclusion Criteria

In order to achieve the aim of this qualitative investigation, the research will incorporate different categories of participants. They will include both male and employees who are working at the Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants for at least 3 years (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). To ensure that every job category is represented, the participants will be selected through a stratified random sampling approach (Jamshed, 2014). The researcher will interview these respondents to get their perspectives on the gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). Also, this inquiry will also include corporate managers and institutional leaders tasked with creating and implementing policy decisions on an inclusive workplace in the organization, especially the improvement of gender diversity (Gaus, 2017). These managers will be selected using the purposive sampling approach with the inclusion criteria being human resource managers in the with at least 5 years management experience creating and implementing gender diversity.

Proposed Research Design and Methods of Data Collection

Study Design

Fifteen (15) employees from different job categories at Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants will be selected through stratified random sampling to participate in the study (Gaus, 2017). Only the participants with at least 3 years experience of work in the company will be selected (Jamshed, 2014). Further, the researcher will recruit 3 human resource managers for the study.

Instruments for Data Collection

The researcher will select instruments that ascertain how reliable and valid the results are (Gaus, 2017). Apart from the researcher as the primary research instrument, the study will also rely on semi-structured interviews to collect data on the perspectives of employees and HR managers on gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value (Jamshed, 2014). The investigator will conduct a pre-testing interview session to ascertain the steadfastness of the instruments prior to embarking on the main study. Findings from the pre-test will be used to enhance areas demonstrating ambiguity or insensitiveness to the participants in the survey (Jamshed, 2014). Thereafter, interviews and digital tape recorders will be used to record the participants’ perspectives on gender diversity and its correlation with employee job satisfaction with corporate value (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). As an essential research instrument, the researcher will seek to isolate personal views and biases from the investigation process (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). This is meant to ensure that participants are accorded due diligence and respect when giving their opinions and experiences regarding the issue under inquiry.

The Data Collection Process

Qualitative research entails a collection of concrete and rich data. The researcher will use the Seidman’s (2013) process of interviewing in collecting data. This interviewing procedure follows a three-step process where the participants respond to sets of structured questions assessing three different elements of the research process (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). Each of the participants will be required to respond to similar questions to enhance consistency in the inquiry (Jamshed, 2014). All interview sessions will be tape recorded to accurately capture information from participants (Gaus, 2017). The research process will be based on this research question: What is the relationship between gender diversity and job satisfaction with corporate value? Also, the researcher will pose several other questions including:

  1. How has gender diversity influenced the level of your job satisfaction with corporate value?
  2. What are the main contributions of gender diversity towards your job satisfaction?
  3. How does gender diversity facilitate the accomplishment of corporate value?
  4. Does gender diversity relate positively to your job satisfaction with corporate value irrespective of your gender?
  5. Do you believe your level of job satisfaction is influenced by the number of women versus men employed in your company?

Proposed Data Analysis Methods

From the qualitative assessment of the variables under inquiry, a lot of rich and subjective data will be gathered (Gaus, 2017). Given that the gathered information will be textual in nature, it will be essential to ascertain their accuracy before analysis. This will be achieved by providing respondents with recorded transcripts for verifying whether their opinions and perspectives have been captured accurately (Jamshed, 2014). Yin’s (2014) five-step analysis process will be utilized to organize, assemble, reassemble, and interpret the emerging the themes.

Ethical Considerations

Every researcher is expected to adhere to strict ethical guidelines when dealing with human participants. Ethical considerations begin with the process of data collection by ensuring the interview process does not intrude into the private lives of citizens (Jamshed, 2014). All participants will be assigned pseudo names to avoid the possibility of their identification (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). As such, they will only be referred to as ‘participants’ numbers from 1-13, used to differentiate one respondent from the others (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). Further, the participants will be informed of the ability to terminate their involvement in research. Besides, they will be needed to supply a verbal informed consent as a way of demonstrating the willingness to participate in the investigation process.

Potential Constraints and Limitations in Research

This qualitative inquiry will only be limited to Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants and its employees. The researcher anticipates some challenges such as limitations of time and difficulties in finding the HR managers (Cleary et al., 2014). Besides, non-cooperation from some employees as well as confidentiality policy in the organization could become a significant hindrance to the research process (Jamshed, 2014). Further, the research may not consider the attitudes of employees towards gender diversity, but will focus on how gender diversity relates to an employee’s job performance with corporate value.

Implications for Practice

Sustaining a diverse gender workforce that is highly satisfied remains a significant challenge for many contemporary organizations. The key influences in this challenge are the political pressure to promote a diverse gender workforce, high competition for labor, and the implementation of legislation meant to eradicate the socio-economic barriers women encounter in the workplace (Ellemers, 2014). This study suggests that organizations will be able to establish sensible ways of increasing diversity without compromising on the employees’ job satisfaction with corporate value (Ellemers, 2014). This suggests that the recruitment, development, and investments in women should be undertaken without jeopardizing their job satisfaction or that of the co-workers (Ellemers, 2014). Also, the findings will highlight some of the challenges of improving gender diversity and job satisfaction simultaneously.  Besides, gender diversity policies could benefit from the results of this inquiry.

Suggestions for Future Works

Several studies have focused on how gender diversity influences a firm’s financial performance and the current gender inequality in the workplace. This study seeks to delve further into the relationship between a diverse gender organization and the employees’ job satisfaction with corporate value. Importantly, it will highlight the factors sustaining improved gender diversity and job satisfaction with the corporate value among the employees. Future research needs to focus on investigating the impact on job ability and work conditions on the gender diversity and in turn job satisfaction and corporate value.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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HARRY POTTER AND THE SORCERER’S STONE.

HARRY POTTER AND THE SORCERER’S STONE.

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In the Novel, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, by J.K. Rowling’s, true friends afford an individual with the understanding and support to make hard decisions. Indeed, protecting and serving others destroys the natural human inclination to act selfishly, by understanding one’s place in society, emphasizing humility as a preferred way of living, and enabling individuals to look beyond their experiences. To understand means to become aware of the nature and significance of all walks of life and to learn to have tolerance and sympathy for one another. It is applicable to this story because without understanding one another, nobody would have been able to successfully change things for the greater good. Humility can be an underlying reason to a person’s behavior. It is the quality of being modest -usually used to talk about a lack of ego or lack of arrogance. The purpose behind humility in this novel was to remind us that true humility is not thinking less of oneself, but instead to think of oneself less. Enabling individuals to look beyond their experiences really gives people a push to strive. The relevance of humility in the novel starts from the very beginning. Someone’s experiences should not dictate their abilities to be greater in life. Furthermore, when understanding one’s place in society, emphasizing humility as a preferred way of living, and enabling individuals to look beyond their experiences, one can hope for nothing but good to come.
In the story of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, Harry Potter, the main character is not aware how famous and powerful he really is. He lost both his parents as an infant, and has been raised by his aunt and uncle, who do not by any means want the young man (about 11years old at the time) to find out that he is a powerful wizard, just like his parents were. Harry Potter meets Hagrid, a giant of a man, who tells him about his past and how his parents died, in the hand of the Dark wizard, Lord Voldemort, who attacked and killed them .
The reward to humility is displayed in the book when Harry Potter gets the opportunity to go to the prestigious wizardly school, after 10 years of suffering under his uncle and aunt. Harry makes friends in school and learns how to play the aerial school sport called Quidditch. He gets into mystical fights and adventures, and even discovers a three-headed dog, which keeps a top secret. Harry is not spared the hostility of Professor Snape and Draco Malfoy a student, who do not take to him, and who make his life in school a bit difficult. In the process of adventure at school, Harry Potter is drawn into a web of magic and mystical things, and as he gets deeper into it, having chanced into it, he realizes that this is his destiny.
The book, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, carries a heroism theme, when Harry Potter, as a young boy of 11 years gets to know and understand the powers he had, and goes onto pursue mythical and wizardly studies at the prestigious Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry is the hero in the book, and even though mystic and fantasy are highly employed in the work, the importance of self-discovery and pursuing the unknown to come to a greater understanding of self is highlighted. This is clear in the storyline where in the beginning Harry grew up suppressed and mistreated by his uncle’s family, but upon meeting the giant Hagrid, his life and destiny change, as he comes to the reality of who he really was. From then on, Harry Potter’s life is full of learning and adventure, accompanied by his two friends, Ron and Hermione, bringing out the importance of friendship and relationships in life. It is with the help of these friends that Harry Potter is able to prevent the coming back of the Wizard Voldermort, who had tried to kill him as a toddler but had succeeded in killing his parents.
Humility is a great virtue whose value is well articulated in the book, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, particularly in relation to the main character and hero. Harry Potter’s modesty and simplicity are paramount in his success and achievements as he continues to understand himself and his role in the mystical world. His humility is exemplified by his background as an orphan, who is maltreated by his uncle’s family, the Dursleys. However, it is important to note that Harry Potter’s humility in this story continues even when he gains success and fame at Hogwarts University. Even after his outstanding performance in the Quidditch sport by breaking record after record, he remains down to earth and always working to improve further. In fact, Harry is keen on maintaining the popularity of his character and respect, as opposed to showing off in arrogance, when he realised that he has become quite famous. His humility plays a fundamental role in helping him to find the sorcerer’s stone to help in the common good but not to use it to glorify himself or to acquire prominence and wealth, as is the aim with other wizards like Quirrell and Voldermort.
There are various symbols and imagery that are used in the book, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, including the wands, which are used by the various magicians to indicate their characters and personalities. The story treats the reader to an experience of both worlds; the real world and the mystical or fantasy world. Students read about normal everyday activities like going to school, reading stories, relating with guardians and other people, but are also introduced to the magical and mystical world of wizards and how they operate. The take home from this book despite the much drama and fantasy employed is that good defeats evil. Harry Potter and his friends represent the good, while Voldermort and Quirrell, represent evil, and we see that the sorcerer’s stone ends up with Harry for the greater good.
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, is a story that not only highlights humility as a virtue in life, but also portrays true friendship as an important ingredient to a successful and meaningful life. At school, Harry had two great and supportive friends (Hermione and Ron), and his mentor was Professor Dumbledore. The three friends (Harry, Ron and Hermione), bring unique talent and bravery to the fore, for instance, while Harry had mystical power, Ron was creative and supportive, while Hermione was brilliant. The combination of the three brought success up to the point of getting the sorcerer’s stone and defeating Voldermort, the evil wizard. Friendship and supporting one another are important components of achievement particularly in this case where it helped Harry Potter to achieve his goal. Bravery is also a characteristic that stands out in this story, because Harry was very courageous despite his shortcomings, and he believed in the course for good. What Harry lacked in brilliance he compensated by being courageous to pursue the common good. The love that Harry and his friends shared was instrumental in their success despite the hardships they went through.

Despite the fact that Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone has received massive acclaim from diverse sources, even winning many literary awards, there have been a few criticisms. For example, in the year 2000, Anthony Holden, a writer with The Observer, criticized the series of Harry Potter books as one-dimensional children’s books, and equated them to Disney Cartoons. Earlier, the Catholic Education Resource Centre, had opined that Harry Potter books were entertaining but have shallow lessons to impart. In fact, the main character Harry in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, was seen to have been driven by revenge towards the wizard Voldermort and the bully in school. Other religious sources hold anti Harry Potter sentiments perhaps due to the glorification of mystical and magical tendencies, which are Satanic according to them, and which glorify fantasies as opposed to reality. The content of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, has been variously described as evil and occultic, because witchcraft seems to be made to appear good and innocent. It is important to note that some Christians take the Harry Porter book and others in the series at face value, and do not think it is sin or evil, as it is purely imagination and mechanical, not realistic. The central theme of witchcraft that is very pronounced in the book is what makes critics weary of the values been imparted in children, who are targeted by this book as a learning tool.

Bibliography
Downs, Douglas. “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.” https:// christiananswers.net /spotlight/movies/2001/harrypottersorcerersstone.html
Flint, Hanna. “Harry Potter at 20: What the critics originally thought of the Philosopher’s Stone.” The Independent, 26 June 2017. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films /news/harry-potter-20th-anniversary-fans-original-reviews-harry-potter-and-the-philosophers-stone-a7808721.html
Jentings, Colt. “Overview: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone: A literary analysis.” https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/harry-potter-and-the-sorcerers-stone-colt-jentings/1029658901?type=eBook
Kashar, Leah. “5 Life Lessons From the Harry Potter Series.” 3 July 2013. The Huffington Post.
https://www.huffingtonpost.com/leah-kashar/harry-potter-lessons_b_3208946.html
Novelguide.com. “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone: Theme Analysis.” 2018.
http://www.novelguide.com/harry-potter-and-the-sorcerers-stone/theme-analysis
Rivera, Tara, L. “Book Review: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.” https://www. commonsensemedia.org/book-reviews/harry-potter-and-the-sorcerers-stone
Rowling, Joanne, Kathleen. “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.” United States: Scholastic Corporation, 1998.
Shmoop University. “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone Analysis.” 2018.
https://www.shmoop.com/harry-potter-sorcerers-stone/literary-devices.html
Sparknotes. “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone: Themes.” 2017. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/harrypotter/

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Processes of Observational Learning Research Paper

Think about a behavior you would like to learnWatch a “how to” video or by watching a friend or family member perform this behavior. i.e., how to serve in tennis or paint a wall or whatever you think.
Explain the 4 prcesses of observational learning (attentional, retentional, motor reproductive, and motivational)could contribute to learning the behavior
Instructions
Describe the behavior selected to learn and what you observed in order to learn it.
Explain how Bandura’s four processes could contribute to learning of the behavior.

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The paper must also have title page, outline, and Works Cited pages. (These pages are NOT considered as part of the body page count.) You will find a sample research paper, including a sample Works Cited page in Chapter 16 of The St. Martin’s Handbook. Information about formal outlines is in Chapter 3. The order of pages in the paper is title page, outline, body of paper, works cited. These are all to be saved and sent to me as one document.
The final Works Cited page will contain seven to eight (7-8) sources. The sources will be derived from appropriate books, periodicals, etc., to denote variety of sources used. Cliffs Notes, Masterplots, Monarch, Wikipedia are NOT appropriate sources. Each of the sources used in the Works Cited must be used at least once in the research paper.
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This is a simulation group work, and I already chosen one agenda to write into my work, the agenda that what i chosen is – China The Opportunity, this is one of the 6 agendas. This simulation is to assume the writer as a senior manager in a company, according to the recent situation of this company, to make the future direction and plan positioning.

In the agenda file, i already chosen the first agenda China – The Opportunity, so please writing this agenda in my work, thanks. And have to write the reason that why we chosen this agenda. Also in each agenda has FOUR options (e.g Option A,B,C,D), you have to chosen the one Option of these A,B,C,D, with the reason why you chosen the option, and why the rest of the three options you are not to chosen. To writing this coursework tutor have to let us using the theory, information(source), and with the references, focuses on analysis.

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Research on this assignment and write 5 pages based on the question; Nursing Health policy.
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Research on this assignment and write 5 pages based on the question; How should the police and the public react when hard-core criminals, such as mobsters, drug dealers, and street gang members become victims of violence? .
Ensure that the assignment is original free from plagiarism and use journals and book as references.

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Other Culture celebrate ( or don’t celebrate) birthday’s differently. Pick a different culture and tell me how birthdays are celebrated. Include sentiments, food, senses or anything interested?

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