1) ?They protest that they are good Frenchmen who would rather die than continue under the tyranny of the Parisians and the financiers, who have reduced them to the despair and extreme poverty under which their province labours presently as a result of new and heavy taxes invented during the course of this reign. These burdens have forced many to abandon their landholdings in order to beg for bread, leaving the land uncultivated, the draught animals unable to live off the saffron crop, abandoning clothes and farm implements to be seized by the bailiffs. ? The peasants have made their complaints known on numerous occasions, but the gentlemen of Paris and the Council have ridiculed their sufferings, levying new taxes every year under the fine pretext of necessity of state. The aim of these gentlemen is to increase the wealth of a few individuals and the clients of the ruler of the state by extracting all the money from the province ? thus they will achieve the ruin of the kingdom. The peasants have been forced to go to these extremes in order to gain redress of their grievances and to ensure that their complaints may be heard by the king and not just by his ministers who counsel him so badly ?? (An account of the revolt of the peasants of Saintonge and Angoumois, 1636).
2) ?[On 26 November 1593 the papal nuncio reported to the Collegio] that a night or two a go six young men went about a Venetioan parish, loudly singing, so that all could hear, the hymn Ave maris stella, in such a manner that they could imagine heaping on the lewdest and basest of harlots. The, having recited the second verso of the hymn, they followed it up with the same epithets, and so on from verse to verse until the end. After that they chanted the litanies too, and one would begin to recite ?Sancte Petre?, and the other would respond with most infamous words in contempt and slander of St Peter?s name. The Doge and all members of the Collegio at once, in word and deed, expressed great disbelief and horror at this appalling crime. The nuncio then said that for his part he would not fail to do whatever might be necessary; but he also begged the Doge to assist him with the authority of this lay magistrates in ensuring that justice should be done in so detestable and monstrous a case ? and, indeed it seemed to him that such an excess was worse than the attacks of Lutherans and Huguenots?.? (From the records of the Collegio, 1593.)
3) ?Be it resolved that all who have pearls and wish to make use of them in Venice shall be obliged within the next eight days to go to the Provveditori sopra le Pompe, and declare the number, weight and quality of those pearls. They shall have them registered in their name, and within the next twenty days after that they must have them sealed with the seal which the Soprprovveditori and Provveditor shall approve and which shall be kept in the soffice, so that if from time to time the strings should get broken they can be resealed with the same seal after first makeg sure that they are registered in the s same name, and are of the same number and weight. Once thies period fo twenty-eight days has passed, no more pearls may be registered or sealed.? (From a Senate decree of 15 October 1562 in Venice.)
4) ?So, when were back in Rome, he and the bishop called me and Francesco di Cortona and told us that they wanted us to go do this business of killing those peasants. It is true that the bishop said to us that he would have wished us not to kill them, but rather disfigure and lame them, cut off their ears and hands, or the arms, so that people could see it and know it, but the abbot said that he wanted us to kill them, and if we couldn?t kill them, to burn their houses. I told the lord abbot that I in no way wanted to go inside their house because there were a lot of them and we could get killed.? (From the testimony of the servants of the Bishop of Ancona.)
5) Painting: The Triumphant Entry of Charles V to Bruges.
6) ?Why Superstition is chiefly found in Women. … For some learned men propound this reason; that there are three things in nature, the Tongue, an Ecclesiastic, and a Woman, which know no moderation in goodness or vice; and when they exceed the bounds of their condition they reach the greatest heights and the lowest depths of goodness and vice. When they are governed by a good spirit, they are most excellent in virtue; but when they are governed by an evil spirit, they indulge the worst possible vices. …? Malleus Maleficarum. Part I Question 6.
7) ?The custom we have just mentioned does not mean that most laws of this kind are immutable. Formerly, for example, it was permitted to spit on the ground before people of rank, and was sufficient to put one?s foot on the sputum. Today that is an indecency. In the old days you could yawn, provided you did not speak while doing so; today, a person of rank would be chocked by this.? (Courtin, Nouveau trait? de civilit?)
8) ?The Bishop of Verona [Gianmatteo Giberti] has requested me to beseech your Highness, in his name, to give licence to one Master Jacob Mantino, a Jewish physician, and a very eminent man, to wear the black cap, so that during his stay at Venice he may live at ease, and free from any insult. His Lordship tells me they have been friends for several years, and that he employed him to translate certain Hebrew works into Latin. I promised him to perform the office, assuring him that your Serenity wishes to do him pleasure.? (Letter from Gasparo Contarini, Venetian ambassador in Rome, to the Signoria)
9) [The Nederlandish Proverbs, by Pieter Brueghel]. The image is available on Google.
10) ?She answered: I certainly can remember something of what I said. Adding: When I lived with her I saw that she used a spell that she had said daily by a boy of hers called Christoforo, in front of St Daniel, upstairs in a room. She made him hold a blessed candle lit in his hand. I saw this several times. Lucrezia would send me away and didn?t want me to see it. But I didn?t hear the words. She made him say this spell eight or ten times a day. She told me that she had this spell said because she wanted to make one Giovanni Maria, servant of the pope, fall in love with her, and others too.? (From the testimony of Caterina Nanzi in the trial of Lucrezia the Greek.)
NOTES ON WRITING ESSAYS
You MUST always supply a BIBLIOGRAPHY of the books and articles you have read for the essay with full details, thus:-
N. Author, Book title, place, publisher, and date of publication
N. Author, ?Article title?, Name of Journal, volume, year, pp. n – nn.
N. Author, ?Article title? in N. Editor, ed., Book title, place and date of publication
List the books/articles alphabetically by author.
You must always attribute any quotations, giving the source (N. Author, and so forth) with the exact page reference.
You ARE ENCOURAGED to use footnotes. You can use footnotes to indicate where you got a particular idea or quotation from; or you can use footnotes to elaborate a particular point, or to disagree with someone else, or to add further evidence. Look at how historians use footnotes.
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