Running outside (Pros and Cons) vs Running on a treadmill (Pros and Cons)


Often, patients find themselves in situations whereby they are advised to engage in a workout as part of the treatment and recovery process. One such physical exercise involves running. In a related vein, individuals who seek to keep a fit body often engage in running. Running is considered to provide a person with several notable health benefits including those related to cardiovascular functioning (Ogueta-Alday, Morante, & García-López, 2013). However, many such persons tend to face the dilemma of having to choose whether to run outside or inside using a treadmill. Advancements in technology have made it increasingly possible for individuals to use treadmills to improve their physical health (Hitchings & Latham, 2016). The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis that compares the benefits of running outside with those of using the treadmill. In doing so, the exposition also highlights the significant shortcomings associated with either alternative.

Pros of Running Outside

Running outdoors is considered to have some benefits. For instance, it has been argued that running outside allows an individual to burn relatively more body fat as compared to using the treadmill. While running outside, a person has to make quick and sudden starts, as well as stops, in addition to changing the terrain from time to time (Heesch & Slivka, 2015). Such an individual is also likely to find himself or herself running against the wind. All these eventualities make running outside a more engaging activity. (Heesch & Slivka, 2015). The individual burns more calories as a result. Furthermore, running outside tends to be more demanding for a person. In particular, such an individual has to complete a certain physical distance as part of realizing the goal associated with the physical exercise. The need to achieve the goal is more demanding as compared to that of a treadmill where the individual can simply switch off the machine and get off thereby bringing the exercise to an end (Yeh, Stone, & Davids, 2017). Running outside also enjoys a person to enjoy the scenery in addition to leveraging the option of using different routes every other day. Therefore, it is evident that running outdoors has notable advantages.

Cons of Running Outside

Despite having significant benefits, running outside is also considered to have a few drawbacks. For example, a person who chooses to run outside has to deal with the prospect of maneuvering unpredictable terrains. The process can be unnecessarily challenging for an individual who would have otherwise preferred to utilize a uniform surface for the physical exercise (Yeh et al., 2017). Moreover, the weather plays a significant role in determining whether the physical activity would be successful and even whether an individual would be able to run in the first place. Unexpected changes in the weather could result in a person having to postpone the exercise and consequently, miss out on its health benefits (Weng & Chiang, 2014). Running is beneficial as an exercise when it is performed regularly and not once in a while. Weather disruptions could, therefore, have a negative impact on the ability of an individual to leverage the benefits of the exercise. Also, it is worth noting that running outside is more likely to result in a less effective workout. The case is especially prevalent in instances whereby the individual lacks access to a device that would otherwise notify them when they slow down (Heesch & Slivka, 2015). Understanding these shortcomings is, therefore, necessary for those who wish to consider the option of running outside.



Pros of Running on the Treadmill

An alternative to running outside would involve conducting the physical exercise indoors using a treadmill. The option, just as it is the case with that of running outdoors, has various advantages. For example, using the treadmill allows one to avoid the disruption that would otherwise be occasioned by unexpected changes in the weather (Keniger, Gaston, & Fuller, 2013). Such an individual would be in a position to proceed with the physical exercise irrespective of the existing weather condition. Running indoors also allows one to avoid unpredictable terrains while also monitoring factors such as the pace, distance, and calories (Keniger et al., 2013). The device allows the user to view their progress and even set a pace that is in line with their goals. A person training for a specific event could set a pace on the treadmill and use the machine to achieve the same. In a similar vein, an individual seeking to enhance his or her stamina endurance could also use the device to determine the ideal pace. Using the treadmill also allows the individual to avoid distractions in the environment which tend to slow down one’s pace (Yeh et al., 2017). Nonetheless, a user who prefers to train while also undertaking other activities such as watching the television would find the treadmill to be the appropriate option. Running indoors certainly has several benefits.

Cons of Running on the Treadmill

The option of using the treadmill also has a few notable shortcomings. For instance, running indoors can be boring for some. While having a constant environment helps an individual to avoid unpredictable changes in the terrain, it can also result in the exercise being tedious and lacking the necessary stimulation (Ogueta-Alday et al., 2013). Using the treadmill also requires that a person invests in such a device which can be costly for some. An alternative would involve using the machines owned by a local gym which would require that the individual pays a fee before accessing the same. Running indoors also eliminates other essential factors which are considered to be useful in helping an individual to maximize the full benefits of such an exercise. The wind is one such factor and persons who choose to use the treadmill do not experience the resistance that would otherwise be caused by running against the wind (Hitchings & Latham, 2016). Additionally, it has been noted that the cushioned surface that is typically used on conventional treadmills exposes a person to the risk of exerting undue stress on their hip, ankle, and knee joints (Heesch & Slivka, 2015). Such pressure could result in the individual experiencing injuries during the training. Persons who use the option of running indoors, therefore, need to take into account the various drawbacks associated with the same.


Running is undoubtedly good for an individual’s health. The physical exercise allows one to improve his or her overall cardiovascular health while also enhancing their stamina endurance. In many cases, a person may find it challenging to decide whether they should run outside or indoors using a treadmill. Each one of the alternatives has unique advantages, as well as notable shortcomings. Running outside allows an individual to leverage benefits that not accessible to those who choose to run indoors. Such benefits include those related to the person’s ability to burn more calories and to utilize different terrains. On the other hand, running indoors allows one to avoid unpredictable changes in the weather, as well as in the terrain. Clinicians, therefore, need to advise their clients accordingly regarding the benefits and drawbacks of each option.






Heesch, M. W., & Slivka, D. R. (2015). Running performance, pace strategy, and thermoregulation differ between a treadmill and indoor track. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(2), 330-335.

Hitchings, R., & Latham, A. (2016). Indoor versus outdoor running: understanding how recreational exercise comes to inhabit environments through practitioner talk. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 41(4), 503-514.

Keniger, L. E., Gaston, K. J., & Fuller, R. A. (2013). What are the benefits of interacting with nature? International journal of environmental research and public health, 10(3), 913-935.

Ogueta-Alday, A., Morante, J. C., & García-López, J. (2013). Validation of a new method to measure contact and flight times during treadmill running. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(5), 1455-1462.

Weng, P. Y., & Chiang, Y. C. (2014). Psychological restoration through indoor and outdoor leisure activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(2), 203-217.

Yeh, H. P., Stone, J. A., & Davids, K. (2017). Physical and emotional benefits of different exercise environments designed for treadmill running. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7), 752.



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Gender Diversity-the relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value

Research Background

The quest gender diverse workforce is increasing at a rapid pace. Many organizations, especially in developed nations, are experiencing an unprecedented increase in gender diversity (Nielsen & Madsen, 2017). For example, the representation of women in the US labor force has increased significantly over the years with more than 48 percent of U.S workers being women (Nater & Sczesny, 2016). For instance, the number of women workers has risen from 32.7 to 56.8 % between 1948 and 2016. This represents about 74.6 million women working in the public civilian sector.  Besides, more women are entering the workforce with many of them taking up leadership and management roles, a fete that was quite difficult over five decades ago. Potvin, Burdfield-Steel, Potvin and Heap (2018) estimate that this trend is likely to continue into the coming decades since more are taking up leadership roles and opportunities in organizations. The US has comprehensive laws that seek to prohibit discrimination of women in the workplaces. For example, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963 are examples of laws being implemented by the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to ensure women are protected and not discriminated.

The increasing number of women recruited into organizations has attracted the attention of researchers who have attempted to assess whether the different gender influences the individual or organizational performance (Hitka et al. 2015). Early studies suggested that gender diversity was a significant source of competitive advantage arguing that it introduced a range of skills set they could not get with single-gender representations, who were mostly men (Jain & Bhardwaj, 2014). However, recent studies have questioned this optimism of the significance of gender diversity with theories and empirical reviews suggesting that it presents both positive and negative effects (Lee & Ames, 2017). For example, the organization’s resource-based view suggests that gender diversity and performance positively relate while social identity theory finds a negative correlation between the same factors. Although many studies have suggested a positive relationship between job performance and gender inclusivity (Lee & Ames, 2017; Jain & Bhardwaj, 2014; Liu, Chiang, Fehr, Xu & Wang, 2017), the relationship between a diverse gender workforce and employee satisfaction with corporate value remains hugely ignored. While many practitioners and researchers prioritize increasing the number of women, there are growing labor concerns of the levels of job satisfaction arising from such decisions.

The decline in job satisfaction and the rise in turnover have been identified as significant problems in the workforces of many countries around the world. Low-job satisfaction and lofty turnover are pricey to the entity in terms of resources and loss of skills and proficiencies that may have taken years to develop (Nielsen & Madsen, 2017). With the labor force experiencing other challenges such as a shrinking workforce and the aging population, the understanding of the gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value is of great significance (Ralston, Russell & Egri, 2018). Therefore, this research seeks to explore how gender diversity relates to job satisfaction and the intentions of turnover of both male and female employees.

Statement of Research Problem

Given that the pursuit of excellence and the need to improve business performance are critical features of any institutions, many organizations strive to great lengths to attain their fundamental objectives. Diverse gender workplace is one of the emerging trends towards the accomplishment of the firm’s goals with the presumption that it improves employee performance. While many studies have explored how gender diversity relates to the firm’s financial performance, little research exists on the influence of diverse gender on job satisfaction with organizational value (Rattan & Dweck, 2018). Although the improvement in gender diversity has been found to improve organizational performance, there is growing uncertainty on its relationship with job satisfaction. However, Sabharwal (2014) argues that gender diversity leads to the emergence of sub-groups that may lead to gender salience if not managed well-managed. This categorization and assessment of employees based on group characteristics or traits could impair communication and the engagement of employees. Besides, the conflicts created within these groups could also decrease strategic consensus and hinder the effective decision-making process with adverse effects on job satisfaction with corporate value.

The increased attraction of gender diversity and its relationship to employee job satisfaction with from practitioners and researchers stems from the emergence of socially significant categories in the organization. These groups tend to be oriented towards sub-categories such as age, ethnicity, sexual orientation, race, et cetera, which further impact the consequences of improved gender representations on the employees’ job satisfaction (Ward & Forker, 2015). From the firm’s perspective, Nielsen and Madsen (2017) found out that a diverse gender workforce could trigger innovation and creativity since the pooling of a mix of perspectives and experiences. However, the views on gender diversity at the workplace differ, and the belief that more women in the labor workforce would improve the soaring inequality and promote innovation has been challenged by insights from studies on organizational demographics (Ward & Forker, 2015). For example, the results from the analysis of the organizational demographics point out that diversity often reduces the cohesiveness, conflicts, and hostilities among co-workers from different groups thus leading to low job satisfaction. When these conflicting positions and attitudes go unmediated, it results in turnover intentions and the inability of employees to enrich one another. Through a comprehensive qualitative evaluation of the perspectives of employees on gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value, it would be possible to analyze how gender diversity impacts job satisfaction for both men and women across different occupational settings and contexts.

Literature Review

The participation of women has increased significantly around the world. In the United States, for instance, the participation stands at over 48.6 percent while in the United Kingdom it stands at 45.8 percent. Inevitably, this transformation has increased gender diversity in workplaces which in turn has facilitated labor market changes, demographic developments, and various regulatory measures (Avanzi et al., 2015). Despite the growth in the literature on diverse gender workplace and its influence on organizational performance, the investigation on the link between organizational gender diversity and the employee’s job satisfaction with corporate value is relatively limited. Several sociological and psychological studies have attempted to explain the differences among groups in organizations along gender and attitudes and their influences on the employee well-being and attitude (Brummelhuis & Greenhaus, 2018; Carapinha et al., 2017; Chen & Lin, 2016). The following review shows, in the preceding paragraphs, the link between gender diversity and employee’s job satisfaction with corporate value.

According to Nielsen and Madsen (2017) gender diversity refers to a “sexual heterogeneity in the workplace” (p.79). Based on this definition, a company with equal representation of men and women is termed as highly gender-diversified workplaces while those with low gender diversity are those with homogenous gender representation. Researchers on organizational demographics have suggested that workforce composition can have a remarkable effect on the performance and satisfaction of employees (Curșeu & Schruijer, 2017). This results from the influence of social interactions and group processes which impacts the attitudes, well-being, and employee performance. Rahman, Akhter, and Khan (2017) define job satisfaction as an emotional state that is agreeable and ensues from the accomplishment of job principles. Job satisfaction encompasses the assessment of job circumstances, including workload, financial outcomes such as pay/wages, appropriate supervision, job security, et cetera (Rahman, Akhter & Khan, 2017). Essentially, these factors have been associated with different degrees of satisfaction depending on an employee perception and expectations.

Raziq and Maulabakhsh (2015) identify the determinants of job satisfaction as the job conditions, co-workers, communication, the work environment, policies, and the level of approval from organizational managers. The interplay between these factors determines the degree of an employee’s satisfaction. Previous researchers have delved into how gender differences influence organizational performance. However, there are significant disagreements on how work composition influences employees, especially on job performance and satisfaction. For instance, Nielsen and Madsen (2017) cite three seminal works conducted by Blalock (1967), Blau (1977), and Kanter (1977) as foundation for the contemporary understanding of disagreements in recent research. According to Blau and Kanter, as cited in Nielsen and Madsen (2017), the relative proportion of various groups in an organization affects the levels of interactions between the members of various groups. This suggests that there is the likelihood for a better interaction amongst the groups if the sizes of the groups are similar. These authors contend that more diverse gender organizations tend to have reduced conflict among groups hence improved the likelihood of employees highly satisfied with their jobs and responsibilities.

However, Blalock’s perspectives pointed to the increase in conflicts between the minority and majority groups. In this view, the threat posed by the minority to the majority group increases with the minority group’s size. The disagreements highlighted in these three seminal works shows in several diversity works of literature (Shaban, 2016; Reguera-Alvarado, de Fuentes & Laffarga, 2015; Ali, Metz & Kulik, 2015; Nielsen & Madsen, 2017). Ellison and Mullin (2014), for instance, contend that diverse gender organization work better, but does not satisfy the fundamental needs of the employees. They found out that employees working in gender diverse organizations would report lower job satisfaction with corporate value. This suggests that employees are more cooperative in homogenous work settings. These disagreements on the contributions of gender diversity to employee well-being and corporate value epitomize the reasons why there are growing challenges regarding.

Gender Diversity Policies and Job Satisfaction with Corporate Value

Gender diversity has a tremendous impact on employee job satisfaction in an organization, especially for the female workers. In a research investigating the effect of gender differences on female employees in Pakistan, Fatima, et al. (2018) established that women encounter more barriers in companies compared to their male co-workers. Consequently, their satisfaction is not influenced by how many they are but how the organization treats and values them (Faniko, Ellemers & Derks, 2016). For example, most women have few chances for promotion even when their performance surpasses that of their male colleagues (Gupta, Han, Mortal, Silveri & Turban, 2018). Consequently, females experience fewer opportunities that could improve their job satisfaction in spite of the increase in gender diversity.

Gender diversity policies are considered a source of competitive advantage if well-implemented in the organization. It helps to create a favorable work environment which optimizes the available human capital to achieve the firm’s aims and objectives (Tisserant, Wagner & Barth, 2013). For this reason, an organization should implement a gender diversity support framework before initiating the process of increasing diversity (Windscheid, Bowes-Sperry, Mazei & Morner, 2015). Several studies have identified ways in which to increase gender diversity (Khan & Vieito, 2013; Olsen, Good, Towns & Choi, 2017; (Nakagawa & Schreiber, 2014; Schwab, Werbel, Hofmann & Henriques, 2015). Identity blindness is one of the initiatives found to crucial in increasing the number of women in corporations.  This strategy seeks to ensure that human resources practices ignore the demographic characteristics that disadvantage women during recruitment and selection. However, biases and stereotypes still hinder the implementation of the process (Daniels, Neale & Greer, 2017). Therefore, Nielsen and Madsen (2017) argued that identify blindness initiatives does not facilitate the increase in gender diversity initiatives. Hence, the author suggests the application of identity conscious initiatives where the women are provided with extra resources and preferential treatment to increase their numbers in the organization.

An organization’s gender diversity position and initiatives are essential parts of corporate value (Dembek, York & Singh, 2018).  Firms communicate their gender diversity initiatives through brochures, programs, or websites that indicate to prospective employees how they might be treated and the working conditions within the company (Windscheid, Bowes-Sperry, Mazei & Morner, 2015). Nielsen and Madsen (2017) demonstrated that the search for diversity statements and initiatives by prospective employees is based on the perceptions that it influences job satisfaction with the corporate value. However, it is not clear to what the diversity statements communicated by institutions affect the selection process because employers have often joined firms with negative gender diversity statements (Tisserant, Wagner & Barth, 2013). Windscheid, Bowes-Sperry, Mazei, and Morner, (2015) suggest that several factors moderate how diversity issues relate to the people’s  intentions to pursue an employment opportunity and ultimate job satisfaction levels after being hired. For example, the perceptions of the firm’s level of diversity accountability and the individual differences moderate the nature of gender diversity initiatives that should be implemented by the organization.

Organizations are under increasing pressure to increase gender diversity due to the legal requirements and quota conventions that have become a crucial aspect of contemporary management. Because of the requirements for a diverse gender workforce, however, many companies are relying on the prescriptive gender diversity approaches, such as preferential treatment, that negatively affects the attractiveness of the institution to potential employees while also reducing the level of job satisfaction for existing workers (Terjesen, Couto & Francisco, 2015). Windscheid, et al., (2015) refers to this scenario as an “organizational gender (diversity) paradox” (p.11) since the firm’s initiatives meant to achieve a diverse gender workforce are perceived negatively by the employees. It would be correct to suggest that most women and their co-workers do not perceive the preferential treatment initiatives as effective in enhancing their job satisfaction with corporate value. Notably, most of them believe that it’s merely an approach to promote the firm’s image and reputation as a gender inclusive environment, yet very little attention is given to initiatives that enhance employee job satisfaction with corporate value.

Shaban (2016) views gender diversity as a “double-edged sword” (p.77) since it is a source of great strength for an institution while also being a major source of weakness. The advantages of gender inclusiveness are often acknowledged through cognitive outcomes such as creativity (Fujimoto, Härtel & Azmat, 2013). The negative consequences, however, can be seen in terms of the negative behaviors that affect the social outcomes such as cohesion, higher staff turnover, relational conflicts, and stereotypes about the dissimilarities amongst the employees (Lauring & Selmer, 2013). Ali, Metz, Kulik (2015) contend that adequate formal training is necessary for the employees to understand the problems of diversity.

Management of Gender Diverse Workforce and Improvement in Job Satisfaction with Corporate Value

Effective management of gender inclusive workforce requires particular skills and competencies from managers. It entails the cultivation of respect, understanding, tolerance, and the acknowledgment that men and women have significant differences. Consequently, managers need to alter their attitudes and values to promote effective gender inclusion (Sabharwal, 2014). The initial step should begin with the commitment to improve diversity by developing the “correct performance and business-oriented attitudes and the correct ethical values that allow them to make appropriate use of the diverse workforce” (Shaban, 2016, p.79). Thereafter, the management should promote diversity awareness where people become aware of the differences in attitudes, values, and behaviors. Shaban (2016) recommends the use of programs that reveal the stereotypes and biases and positively transform them to enhance understanding and, in turn, improved job satisfaction with corporate value. This will require that the company values gender diversity as an essential part of its objectives by continually promoting gender inclusiveness awareness through the selection, recruitment, and other human resources processes (Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara & Ting-Ding, 2016). Moreover, company managers can also reward employees who have effectively managed gender inclusiveness because the recognition of such contributions facilitates greater responsiveness.

Organizational leaders play a crucial role in promoting gender diversity. Reguera-Alvarado, de Fuentes, and Laffarga (2015) assert that gender bias in institutions epitomizes poor management. According to the agency theory, for instance, an increase in diversity has the potential for improving the firm’s performance. While many scholars have assessed this variable in terms of financial outcomes, it can also be examined in terms of the satisfaction of employees with corporate value (Marinova, Plantenga & Remery, 2015). The agency focuses on the relational conflicts that affect the attainment of a cohesive working unit such as gender bias and stereotypes (Rattan & Dweck, 2018). Most of these conflicts, according to Reguera-Alvarado, et al., (2015), are associated with internal issues such as weak corporate governance structures which are crucial drivers of improved job satisfaction among employees. Therefore, gender diversity increases the value for the company by reducing the conflicts and costs associated with problems.

The primary focus on gender diversity stems from the gender imbalances that routinely occur in various companies in several geographic locations. Researchers and practitioners, therefore, ought not only to look at the incorporation of women but also their participation and welfare during the continued presence within the workforce (Ali, Metz & Kulik, 2015). Although more women have been recruited over the last four decades, their satisfaction levels with their responsibilities and corporate value are still lagging behind (Fujimoto, Härtel & Azmat, 2013). Therefore, companies should consider implementing policies that promote appropriate gender diversity attitudes and eliminate the barriers to women in the organization (Marinova, Plantenga & Remery, 2015). As per Lauring and Selmer (2013) argument, job satisfaction relates more with assigned responsibilities and not just to the employment of more women in the organization. This suggests that the roles assigned to the women should be commensurate with their training, experience, expectations, and remuneration.

The Existing Gap in Literature

Diverse gender workforces and the presumed improvement in financial performance have made some researchers contemplate how gender diversity relates to job satisfaction. While the economic results seem to be improving, there is little understanding of the association between gender inclusiveness and job satisfaction with the firm’s performance or corporate value. Tisserant, Wagner, and Barth (2013) argue that women and men bring different skills and competencies that promote creativity and innovation hence improving the corporate value. In this perspective, the heterogeneous groups are crucial drivers for growth and development of the firms yet little evidence exists on the correlation between gender diversity and job satisfaction with corporate performance (Nozadi, Spinrad, Johnson & Eisenberg, 2018). Similarly, Reguera-Alvarado et al., (2015) conclude that further inquiry is needed to identify the correlation between the variables. Because of the identified gaps in the literature, this qualitative study aims to analyze the perspectives of employees and human resource managers on how a diverse gender workforce relates to an employee’s job satisfaction with corporate value.

Purpose of the Study

This qualitative research seeks to assess how gender diversity relates to employee’s job satisfaction with corporate value.

Proposed Questions for the Research

  1. What is the role of gender diversity on the employee’s level of job satisfaction with corporate value?
  2. What are the main contributions of gender diversity towards employee job satisfaction?
  3. How does gender diversity facilitate the accomplishment of corporate value?
  4. Does gender diversity relate positively to member of staff job satisfaction with corporate value irrespective of gender?

Research Hypothesis

H1: There are significant differences among companies with a higher number of women than men.

H2: Gender diversity in a company improves job satisfaction with corporate value, especially among the women.

H3: Several factors limit a company’s quest to increase female representation in an organization’s gender diversity in company management.

Research Objectives

The primary aim of this inquiry is to assess how gender diversity relates to job satisfaction with corporate value. It will also assess the role of gender diversity on the employee’s level of job satisfaction with corporate value and how gender diversity facilitates the accomplishment of corporate value. The research will also seek to explore whether gender diversity relates positively to employee job satisfaction with corporate value irrespective of an employee’s gender.

The significance of the Study

Scholars on firm demographics have argued that the composition of gender in the workplace influences organizational behavior and satisfaction. As stated by Nielsen and Madsen (2017), “there is a wide range of meaning and consequences of workplace diversity, including gender diversity” (p.80). However, recent studies on the composition of gender in the workplace do not agree on the influence of the composition on employee satisfaction. According to Blalock (1967), as cited in Nielsen and Madsen (2017), the existence of a minority group in an organization causes hostilities which could pose a significant threat to the majority. This implies that the threat of a minority group grows with its size. Consequently, a raise in the number of women in an organization could translate to increase conflicts and hostilities among the groups (Ellemers, 2014). This study, therefore, will provide more insights into the factors and contexts related to gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value. This qualitative assessment concentrates on the perspectives of both male and female workers concerning the character of the relationship between gender diversity and job satisfaction with corporate value (Ellemers, 2014). The study will also shed more light into how the organizations treat both and female employees because job satisfaction does not only rely on how many women but also how they are integrated into the firm and their relationships with co-workers.

Proposed Study Participants and the Inclusion Criteria

In order to achieve the aim of this qualitative investigation, the research will incorporate different categories of participants. They will include both male and employees who are working at the Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants for at least 3 years (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). To ensure that every job category is represented, the participants will be selected through a stratified random sampling approach (Jamshed, 2014). The researcher will interview these respondents to get their perspectives on the gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). Also, this inquiry will also include corporate managers and institutional leaders tasked with creating and implementing policy decisions on an inclusive workplace in the organization, especially the improvement of gender diversity (Gaus, 2017). These managers will be selected using the purposive sampling approach with the inclusion criteria being human resource managers in the with at least 5 years management experience creating and implementing gender diversity.

Proposed Research Design and Methods of Data Collection

Study Design

Fifteen (15) employees from different job categories at Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants will be selected through stratified random sampling to participate in the study (Gaus, 2017). Only the participants with at least 3 years experience of work in the company will be selected (Jamshed, 2014). Further, the researcher will recruit 3 human resource managers for the study.

Instruments for Data Collection

The researcher will select instruments that ascertain how reliable and valid the results are (Gaus, 2017). Apart from the researcher as the primary research instrument, the study will also rely on semi-structured interviews to collect data on the perspectives of employees and HR managers on gender diversity and its relationship to job satisfaction with corporate value (Jamshed, 2014). The investigator will conduct a pre-testing interview session to ascertain the steadfastness of the instruments prior to embarking on the main study. Findings from the pre-test will be used to enhance areas demonstrating ambiguity or insensitiveness to the participants in the survey (Jamshed, 2014). Thereafter, interviews and digital tape recorders will be used to record the participants’ perspectives on gender diversity and its correlation with employee job satisfaction with corporate value (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). As an essential research instrument, the researcher will seek to isolate personal views and biases from the investigation process (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). This is meant to ensure that participants are accorded due diligence and respect when giving their opinions and experiences regarding the issue under inquiry.

The Data Collection Process

Qualitative research entails a collection of concrete and rich data. The researcher will use the Seidman’s (2013) process of interviewing in collecting data. This interviewing procedure follows a three-step process where the participants respond to sets of structured questions assessing three different elements of the research process (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). Each of the participants will be required to respond to similar questions to enhance consistency in the inquiry (Jamshed, 2014). All interview sessions will be tape recorded to accurately capture information from participants (Gaus, 2017). The research process will be based on this research question: What is the relationship between gender diversity and job satisfaction with corporate value? Also, the researcher will pose several other questions including:

  1. How has gender diversity influenced the level of your job satisfaction with corporate value?
  2. What are the main contributions of gender diversity towards your job satisfaction?
  3. How does gender diversity facilitate the accomplishment of corporate value?
  4. Does gender diversity relate positively to your job satisfaction with corporate value irrespective of your gender?
  5. Do you believe your level of job satisfaction is influenced by the number of women versus men employed in your company?

Proposed Data Analysis Methods

From the qualitative assessment of the variables under inquiry, a lot of rich and subjective data will be gathered (Gaus, 2017). Given that the gathered information will be textual in nature, it will be essential to ascertain their accuracy before analysis. This will be achieved by providing respondents with recorded transcripts for verifying whether their opinions and perspectives have been captured accurately (Jamshed, 2014). Yin’s (2014) five-step analysis process will be utilized to organize, assemble, reassemble, and interpret the emerging the themes.

Ethical Considerations

Every researcher is expected to adhere to strict ethical guidelines when dealing with human participants. Ethical considerations begin with the process of data collection by ensuring the interview process does not intrude into the private lives of citizens (Jamshed, 2014). All participants will be assigned pseudo names to avoid the possibility of their identification (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). As such, they will only be referred to as ‘participants’ numbers from 1-13, used to differentiate one respondent from the others (Cleary, Horsfall & Hayter, 2014). Further, the participants will be informed of the ability to terminate their involvement in research. Besides, they will be needed to supply a verbal informed consent as a way of demonstrating the willingness to participate in the investigation process.

Potential Constraints and Limitations in Research

This qualitative inquiry will only be limited to Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants and its employees. The researcher anticipates some challenges such as limitations of time and difficulties in finding the HR managers (Cleary et al., 2014). Besides, non-cooperation from some employees as well as confidentiality policy in the organization could become a significant hindrance to the research process (Jamshed, 2014). Further, the research may not consider the attitudes of employees towards gender diversity, but will focus on how gender diversity relates to an employee’s job performance with corporate value.

Implications for Practice

Sustaining a diverse gender workforce that is highly satisfied remains a significant challenge for many contemporary organizations. The key influences in this challenge are the political pressure to promote a diverse gender workforce, high competition for labor, and the implementation of legislation meant to eradicate the socio-economic barriers women encounter in the workplace (Ellemers, 2014). This study suggests that organizations will be able to establish sensible ways of increasing diversity without compromising on the employees’ job satisfaction with corporate value (Ellemers, 2014). This suggests that the recruitment, development, and investments in women should be undertaken without jeopardizing their job satisfaction or that of the co-workers (Ellemers, 2014). Also, the findings will highlight some of the challenges of improving gender diversity and job satisfaction simultaneously.  Besides, gender diversity policies could benefit from the results of this inquiry.

Suggestions for Future Works

Several studies have focused on how gender diversity influences a firm’s financial performance and the current gender inequality in the workplace. This study seeks to delve further into the relationship between a diverse gender organization and the employees’ job satisfaction with corporate value. Importantly, it will highlight the factors sustaining improved gender diversity and job satisfaction with the corporate value among the employees. Future research needs to focus on investigating the impact on job ability and work conditions on the gender diversity and in turn job satisfaction and corporate value.











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Brummelhuis, L., & Greenhaus, J. (2018). How role jugglers maintain relationships at home and at work: A gender comparison. Journal of Applied Psychology. doi: 10.1037/apl0000340

Carapinha, R., McCracken, C., Warner, E., Hill, E., & Reede, J. (2017). Organizational Context and Female Faculty’s Perception of the Climate for Women in Academic Medicine. Journal Of Women’s Health26(5), 549-559. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2016.6020

Chen, C., & Lin, Y. (2016). Managing the foreign investment portfolio: How industry and governance diversity influence firm performance. International Business Review25(6), 1235-1245. doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2016.03.008

Curșeu, P., & Schruijer, S. (2017). Stakeholder diversity and the comprehensiveness of sustainability decisions: the role of collaboration and conflict. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability28, 114-120. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2017.09.007


Choi, S. (2013). Demographic Diversity of Managers and Employee Job Satisfaction. Review of Public Personnel Administration33(3), 275-298. doi: 10.1177/0734371×12453054

Choi, S. (2017). Workforce Diversity and Job Satisfaction of the Majority and the Minority. Review Of Public Personnel Administration37(1), 84-107. doi: 10.1177/0734371×15623617

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Daniels, D., Neale, M., & Greer, L. (2017). Spillover bias in diversity judgment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes139, 92-105. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2016.12.005

Dembek, K., York, J., & Singh, P. (2018). Creating value for multiple stakeholders: Sustainable business models at the Base of the Pyramid. Journal of Cleaner Production196, 1600-1612. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.046

Ellison, S., & Mullin, W. (2014). Diversity, Social Goods Provision, and Performance in the Firm. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy23(2), 465-481. doi: 10.1111/jems.12051

Ellemers, N. (2014). Women at Work. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences1(1), 46-54. doi: 10.1177/2372732214549327

Faniko, K., Ellemers, N., & Derks, B. (2016). Queen Bees and Alpha Males: Are successful women more competitive than successful men?. European Journal of Social Psychology46(7), 903-913. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2198

Fatima, N., Iqbal, S., Akhwand, S., Suleman, M., & Ibrahim, M. (2018). Effect of gender differences on job satisfaction ofthe female employees in Pakistan. International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences3(1), 27-33. doi: 10.11648/j.ijefm.20150301.14

Fujimoto, Y., Härtel, C., & Azmat, F. (2013). Towards a diversity justice management model: integrating organizational justice and diversity management. Social Responsibility Journal9(1), 148-166. doi: 10.1108/17471111311307877

Gupta, V., Han, S., Mortal, S., Silveri, S., & Turban, D. (2018). Do women CEOs face greater threat of shareholder activism compared to male CEOs? A role congruity perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology103(2), 228-236. doi: 10.1037/apl0000269

Hitka, M., Vetráková, M., Balážová, Ž., & Danihelová, Z. (2015). Corporate Culture as a tool for Competitiveness Improvement. Procedia Economics and Finance34, 27-34. doi: 10.1016/s2212-5671(15)01597-x

Jain, S., & Bhardwaj, G. (2014). Understanding Diversity Issues vis-à-vis Caste-based Quota System: A Solution or a Source of Discrimination. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective18(4), 317-325. doi: 10.1177/0972262914554515

Khan, W., & Vieito, J. (2013). Ceo gender and firm performance. Journal of Economics and Business67, 55-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jeconbus.2013.01.003

Lauring, J., & Selmer, J. (2013). Diversity attitudes and group knowledge processing in multicultural organizations. European Management Journal31(2), 124-136. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2012.03.016

Lee, A., & Ames, D. (2017). “I can’t pay more” versus “It’s not worth more”: Divergent effects of constraint and disparagement rationales in negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes141, 16-28. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2017.05.002

Liu, H., Chiang, J., Fehr, R., Xu, M., & Wang, S. (2017). How do leaders react when treated unfairly? Leader narcissism and self-interested behavior in response to unfair treatment. Journal of Applied Psychology102(11), 1590-1599. doi: 10.1037/apl0000237

Marinova, J., Plantenga, J., & Remery, C. (2015). Gender diversity and firm performance: evidence from Dutch and Danish boardrooms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management27(15), 1777-1790. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2015.1079229

Nakagawa, Y., & Schreiber, G. (2014). Women As Drivers Of Japanese Firms Success: The Effect Of Women Managers And Gender Diversity On Firm Performance. Journal of Diversity Management (JDM)9(1), 19. doi: 10.19030/jdm.v9i1.8620

Nater, C., & Sczesny, S. (2016). Affirmative action policies in job advertisements for leadership positions: How they affect women’s and men’s inclination to apply. European Journal of Social Psychology46(7), 891-902. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2200

Nielsen, V., & Madsen, M. (2017). Does Gender Diversity in the Workplace Affect Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions?. International Public Management Review18(1). Retrieved from

Nozadi, S., Spinrad, T., Johnson, S., & Eisenberg, N. (2018). Relations of emotion-related temperamental characteristics to attentional biases and social functioning. Emotion18(4), 481-492. doi: 10.1037/emo0000360

Olsen, J., Good, L., Towns, D., & Choi, D. (2017). Flexible work arrangements, gender diversity, and firm performance. Academy of Management Proceedings2017(1), 13113. doi: 10.5465/ambpp.2017.13113abstract

Potvin, D., Burdfield-Steel, E., Potvin, J., & Heap, S. (2018). Diversity begets diversity: A global perspective on gender equality in scientific society leadership. PLOS ONE13(5), e0197280. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197280


Rahman, K., Akhter, W., & Khan, S. (2017). Factors affecting employee job satisfaction: A comparative study of conventional and Islamic insurance. Cogent Business & Management4(1). doi: 10.1080/23311975.2016.1273082

Ralston, D., Russell, C., & Egri, C. (2018). Business values dimensions: A cross-culturally developed measure of workforce values. International Business Review. doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2018.04.009

Rattan, A., & Dweck, C. (2018). What happens after prejudice is confronted in the workplace? How mindsets affect minorities’ and women’s outlook on future social relations. Journal of Applied Psychology103(6), 676-687. doi: 10.1037/apl0000287

Raziq, A., & Maulabakhsh, R. (2015). Impact of Working Environment on Job Satisfaction. Procedia Economics And Finance23, 717-725. doi: 10.1016/s2212-5671(15)00524-9

Reguera-Alvarado, N., de Fuentes, P., & Laffarga, J. (2015). Does Board Gender Diversity Influence Financial Performance? Evidence from Spain. Journal of Business Ethics141(2), 337-350. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2735-9

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In the Novel, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, by J.K. Rowling’s, true friends afford an individual with the understanding and support to make hard decisions. Indeed, protecting and serving others destroys the natural human inclination to act selfishly, by understanding one’s place in society, emphasizing humility as a preferred way of living, and enabling individuals to look beyond their experiences. To understand means to become aware of the nature and significance of all walks of life and to learn to have tolerance and sympathy for one another. It is applicable to this story because without understanding one another, nobody would have been able to successfully change things for the greater good. Humility can be an underlying reason to a person’s behavior. It is the quality of being modest -usually used to talk about a lack of ego or lack of arrogance. The purpose behind humility in this novel was to remind us that true humility is not thinking less of oneself, but instead to think of oneself less. Enabling individuals to look beyond their experiences really gives people a push to strive. The relevance of humility in the novel starts from the very beginning. Someone’s experiences should not dictate their abilities to be greater in life. Furthermore, when understanding one’s place in society, emphasizing humility as a preferred way of living, and enabling individuals to look beyond their experiences, one can hope for nothing but good to come.
In the story of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, Harry Potter, the main character is not aware how famous and powerful he really is. He lost both his parents as an infant, and has been raised by his aunt and uncle, who do not by any means want the young man (about 11years old at the time) to find out that he is a powerful wizard, just like his parents were. Harry Potter meets Hagrid, a giant of a man, who tells him about his past and how his parents died, in the hand of the Dark wizard, Lord Voldemort, who attacked and killed them .
The reward to humility is displayed in the book when Harry Potter gets the opportunity to go to the prestigious wizardly school, after 10 years of suffering under his uncle and aunt. Harry makes friends in school and learns how to play the aerial school sport called Quidditch. He gets into mystical fights and adventures, and even discovers a three-headed dog, which keeps a top secret. Harry is not spared the hostility of Professor Snape and Draco Malfoy a student, who do not take to him, and who make his life in school a bit difficult. In the process of adventure at school, Harry Potter is drawn into a web of magic and mystical things, and as he gets deeper into it, having chanced into it, he realizes that this is his destiny.
The book, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, carries a heroism theme, when Harry Potter, as a young boy of 11 years gets to know and understand the powers he had, and goes onto pursue mythical and wizardly studies at the prestigious Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry is the hero in the book, and even though mystic and fantasy are highly employed in the work, the importance of self-discovery and pursuing the unknown to come to a greater understanding of self is highlighted. This is clear in the storyline where in the beginning Harry grew up suppressed and mistreated by his uncle’s family, but upon meeting the giant Hagrid, his life and destiny change, as he comes to the reality of who he really was. From then on, Harry Potter’s life is full of learning and adventure, accompanied by his two friends, Ron and Hermione, bringing out the importance of friendship and relationships in life. It is with the help of these friends that Harry Potter is able to prevent the coming back of the Wizard Voldermort, who had tried to kill him as a toddler but had succeeded in killing his parents.
Humility is a great virtue whose value is well articulated in the book, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, particularly in relation to the main character and hero. Harry Potter’s modesty and simplicity are paramount in his success and achievements as he continues to understand himself and his role in the mystical world. His humility is exemplified by his background as an orphan, who is maltreated by his uncle’s family, the Dursleys. However, it is important to note that Harry Potter’s humility in this story continues even when he gains success and fame at Hogwarts University. Even after his outstanding performance in the Quidditch sport by breaking record after record, he remains down to earth and always working to improve further. In fact, Harry is keen on maintaining the popularity of his character and respect, as opposed to showing off in arrogance, when he realised that he has become quite famous. His humility plays a fundamental role in helping him to find the sorcerer’s stone to help in the common good but not to use it to glorify himself or to acquire prominence and wealth, as is the aim with other wizards like Quirrell and Voldermort.
There are various symbols and imagery that are used in the book, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, including the wands, which are used by the various magicians to indicate their characters and personalities. The story treats the reader to an experience of both worlds; the real world and the mystical or fantasy world. Students read about normal everyday activities like going to school, reading stories, relating with guardians and other people, but are also introduced to the magical and mystical world of wizards and how they operate. The take home from this book despite the much drama and fantasy employed is that good defeats evil. Harry Potter and his friends represent the good, while Voldermort and Quirrell, represent evil, and we see that the sorcerer’s stone ends up with Harry for the greater good.
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, is a story that not only highlights humility as a virtue in life, but also portrays true friendship as an important ingredient to a successful and meaningful life. At school, Harry had two great and supportive friends (Hermione and Ron), and his mentor was Professor Dumbledore. The three friends (Harry, Ron and Hermione), bring unique talent and bravery to the fore, for instance, while Harry had mystical power, Ron was creative and supportive, while Hermione was brilliant. The combination of the three brought success up to the point of getting the sorcerer’s stone and defeating Voldermort, the evil wizard. Friendship and supporting one another are important components of achievement particularly in this case where it helped Harry Potter to achieve his goal. Bravery is also a characteristic that stands out in this story, because Harry was very courageous despite his shortcomings, and he believed in the course for good. What Harry lacked in brilliance he compensated by being courageous to pursue the common good. The love that Harry and his friends shared was instrumental in their success despite the hardships they went through.

Despite the fact that Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone has received massive acclaim from diverse sources, even winning many literary awards, there have been a few criticisms. For example, in the year 2000, Anthony Holden, a writer with The Observer, criticized the series of Harry Potter books as one-dimensional children’s books, and equated them to Disney Cartoons. Earlier, the Catholic Education Resource Centre, had opined that Harry Potter books were entertaining but have shallow lessons to impart. In fact, the main character Harry in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, was seen to have been driven by revenge towards the wizard Voldermort and the bully in school. Other religious sources hold anti Harry Potter sentiments perhaps due to the glorification of mystical and magical tendencies, which are Satanic according to them, and which glorify fantasies as opposed to reality. The content of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, has been variously described as evil and occultic, because witchcraft seems to be made to appear good and innocent. It is important to note that some Christians take the Harry Porter book and others in the series at face value, and do not think it is sin or evil, as it is purely imagination and mechanical, not realistic. The central theme of witchcraft that is very pronounced in the book is what makes critics weary of the values been imparted in children, who are targeted by this book as a learning tool.

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Jentings, Colt. “Overview: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone: A literary analysis.”
Kashar, Leah. “5 Life Lessons From the Harry Potter Series.” 3 July 2013. The Huffington Post. “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone: Theme Analysis.” 2018.
Rivera, Tara, L. “Book Review: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.” https://www.
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Shmoop University. “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone Analysis.” 2018.
Sparknotes. “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone: Themes.” 2017.

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Great Political Debates.

Economy versus society? The topic must relate to a great political debate. If necessary you will have to justify why it is a great political debate. The purpose of only focusing on great debates, is to show your skills in researching and analysing truly complex, difficult and historically significant policy and political dilemmas. Avoid simply describing the debate / policy issue. You need to both research and analyse the problem. Identify and frame the question at the heart of the debate or issue, in a way that exposes and leads you to mount an argument (answer) regarding what is needed to better address or solve the issues at the heart of the debate. The topic (i.e. subject matter) of the problem may be different from the policy or political issues which are central to why it is a problem. E.g. climate change is a great topic of great current debates. But the policy issues involved are many and varied: your challenge is to zero in on one or more of the key policy or political problems that are preventing better solutions to the challenges of climate change from being found or implemented.

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The historical development of budgetary and financial theory

Write an essay of no less than 500 words discussing the historical development of budgetary and financial theory as well as how this development has influenced the modern public budgeting climate and environment. In addition, discuss the similarities and differences that exist between budgetary theory and budgetary practice. Be sure to cite all borrowed, quoted, and paraphrased material appropriately in APA format. Please be sure that you reference at least two peer-reviewed journal articles.

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Digital Technology Media.

The NSA and Snowden: Securing the All-Seeing Eye located Summarize the important points of the article and include: ?The impact of this information on U.S. society and the world ?Constitutionality issues Using critical thinking, address three (3) points made in the article and offer your reflective thoughts on these points. Note: This may include whether you agree / disagree, if you believe it is a good idea or not, possible consequences of the point you are addressing, etc. Address the future implications of the main points made by NSA and Snowden article What Awaits you: On-time delivery guarantee Masters and PhD-level writers Automatic plagiarism check 100% Privacy and Confidentiality High Quality custom-written papers

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Recruitment and selection report

The following is a report on recruitment and selection. All that is required to complete is add a 350 words executive summary. Add about 90 words each on topic: (1) Realistic Job preview (2) Recruitment policy (EEO) (3) Add about 800 words to the recommendations and back it up with reference and kindly send back the reference used with highlighter on it on parts adopted. (reference APA style and only journal articles from year 2009 please)

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Defend or condem characters actions.

Both A Dolls House and Othello focus on characters who use questionable judgment. Nora abandons her family for what some readers would call selfish motivations, and Othello commits murder after becoming jealous of Desdemona. However, based on the way the two plays were written, readers are meant to sympathize with both Nora and Othello, at least on some level. Write an essay in which you either defend or condemn the actions of these two characters. Have the authors made these characters likable enough to excuse their actions? What Awaits you: On-time delivery guarantee Masters and PhD-level writers Automatic plagiarism check 100% Privacy and Confidentiality High Quality custom-written papers

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Career choices.

Write an essay discussing the following question: How are career choices different in your home country from career choices here in the U.S? Some issues you may want to include are: ¨ What are some popular careers? ¨ How are career choices different for men and women? ¨ Are career choices different for you than they were for your parents? How? ¨ Does religion have an impact on individuals career choices? If so, how? ¨ Is it easy or difficult for most people to enter their desired career? ¨ Is it easy or even possible for people to change careers in your country? ¨ What is the greatest hurdle to entering ones chosen profession in your country? What Awaits you: On-time delivery guarantee Masters and PhD-level writers Automatic plagiarism check 100% Privacy and Confidentiality High Quality custom-written papers

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Analyze how the forces of nationalism, imperialism, and mili

Analyze how the forces of nationalism, imperialism, and militarism irrevocably led to World War I. Pay particular attention to the rise of Pan-Slavism in Eastern Europe and the corresponding rise of nationalism in German-speaking states. Analyze how the alliance system contributed to the ultimate outbreak of war. *analyze the events that drew the United States into World War I. *Clearly discuss why America first remained neutral between1914-1917. *What role did ethnicity play in Americas neutrality? *Then identify and analyze the specific events that led to Americas entrance into the war. *Evaluate Americas contribution to the war effort and to what extent Americas entry contributed to the end of the war. A *Analyze the events that led to the defeat of the Treaty of Versailles. What effect did this have on Americas role in the world during the 1920s and 1930s? Pay particular attention to the role of President Woodrow Wilson both during and after the war, in particular, his efforts to establish the League of Nations. What Awaits you: On-time delivery guarantee Masters and PhD-level writers Automatic plagiarism check 100% Privacy and Confidentiality High Quality custom-written papers

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