The goal of this assignment is to write a short 2-3 page paper (700-1050 words) comparing and contrasting two
influential educators. This paper will also apply APA style and formatting requirements. Use the following points
listed in the syllabus to structure your comments.
Main Task: Compare Two Articles
For this activity, read the two articles listed in the Activity Resource section Flanagan, F. M. (2005) and
Silova, I., & Brehm, W. C. (2010) in which famous and innovative educators discuss the journey of scientists
and practitioners. Then, prepare a brief, 2-3 page paper (700-1050 words) in which you compare and contrast the
subjects of the two articles: noted educators Paulo Freire and William Brickman. Address the following in your
• Identify each educator and briefly describe their main contributions to the field.
• Discuss the resistance that each encountered in presenting and furthering their research, ideas, or programs.
• Discuss any similarities you see in their professional stories.
• Note how each one differed.
• Finally discuss what factor(s) you think (environmental, professional, personal) may have impacted their
For Flanagan, click on the link and then click on the chapter on Freire. You can download and print the Brickman
article as a PDF file. It is ten pages, so give yourself time to read it.
To print the Freire article, first access the site using the link. Then there is a button on the upper left
portion of the page called ‘Info Tools’ that brings up a dropdown list when it is clicked. Print is one of the
options available in the list. Once it is selected a new dialogue box opens to determine the page range before
sending the document to the printer attached to the user’s computer. The chapter on Freire falls on pages 191-201
by the electronic page count and 184-194 of the physical page count.
________________________________________SPECIFIC EXAMPLE AND NOTES ABOUT REQUIREMENTS
NOTE: You do NOT need an Abstract.
A Comparison of Paulo Freire and William Brickman
The heading for an introduction is the name of the paper, centered but not bolded like other APA Level I
headings. Do not make a heading called Introduction. The purpose of the Introduction is to restate the questions
asked by the instructions and show what the paper is about in a clearly stated thesis statement. Note that the
format is 12 point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, paragraphs indented ½ inch using tab NOT space bar, 1-
inch margins on all sides and spacing after set at zero. Do not make a title page. Write around 5-7 sentences for
The Two Educators and Their Contributions
It is important in APA style papers to develop a heading and subheading structure from the assignment
instructions. Think of the instructions as questions that you will answer with your evidence. The Two Educators
etc. is a Level I heading in the APA manual on page 62. Use a Level II heading from the APA manual on page 62 to
introduce the discussion of Freire’s contributions. Be specific and use examples (Dolch & Douglass, 1986).
Make sure that you have an in-text citation for each example and that you include the reference in the References
section at the end of the work (Galvan, 2009).
Use a Level II heading to introduce the discussion of Brickman’s contributions. Use examples. Make sure that you
have an in-text citation for each example and that you include the reference in the References section at the end
of the work.
Resistance Freire and Brickman Encountered
Resistance etc. is a Level I heading. You may compare both educators in the same paragraph. You need to use in-
text citations in your paper. The guide to properly formatting in-text citations begins on page 174 of the APA
manual. You will refer to this section of the manual frequently. The References section should have entries for
all the resources used in writing the paper. Reference examples start on page 198 of the APA manual.
Similarities and Differences
Similarities in Freire’s and Brickman’s Professional Stories
Use a Level I heading for Similarities and Differences. Use a Level II heading to introduce the discussion of
similarities because this is a subheading. Use examples. Make sure that you have an in-text citation for each
example and that you include the reference in the References section at the end of the work.
How Freire and Brickman Differed
Use a Level II heading to introduce the discussion of differences. Use examples. Make sure that you have an in-
text citation for each example and that you include the reference in the References section at the end of the
Factors that Impacted Freire’s and Brickman’s Success
Use a Level II heading to introduce the discussion of factors. Use examples. Make sure that you have an in-text
citation for each example and that you include the reference in the References section at the end of the work.
Summarize the paper by restating the introduction in different words. Remind the reader what you discussed.
Mention what was memorable about each educator and why it was valuable to learn about them. Do not put both men
in the same sentence. Do not make new points in the Conclusion. Write around 5 sentences.
List the references for the paper on the next page after the end of the paper.
Page Layout->Breaks ->Next Page
The References heading is a section heading which is different from a main heading, so it is centered but not
bolded. All the references should be correctly formatted for APA requirements.
Note references are single-spaced within the references and double-spaced between references. APA references are
double-spaced within and between references.
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