– What is that which is always real and has no becoming, and what is it that which is always becoming and is never real? … whenever the maker of anything looks to that which is always unchanging and uses a model of that description in fashioning the form and quality of his work, all that he thus accomplishes must be good. If he looks to something that has come to be and uses a generated model, it will not be good.
(Plato, Timaeus, 27c-29d). In: Plato’s Cosmology, trans. F.M. Cornford, Hackett Publishing, 1997, p. 22.
– Matter is a relative term: to each form there corresponds a special matter. How far then must the physicist know the form or essence? Up to a point, perhaps, as the doctor must know the sinew or the smith bronze (i.e. until he understands the purpose of each): and the physicist is concerned only with things whose forms are separable indeed, but do not exist apart from matter.
(Aristotle, Physics, Bk. II, Ch. 2, 194b). In: The Basic Works of Aristotle, ed. R. McKeon, Random House, 1941, p. 240.
Compare and contrast Plato’s and Aristotle’s approaches to the knowledge of material objects. In your answer you may wish to consider their diverging conceptions of form, change, and causality in nature.
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