Match the artist to where he began to work as an artist.
Match the artist to one of his patrons
C. Hans Holbein
D. Gentile Bellini
1. king of England
2. bishop of Paphos, Cyprus
3. the city of Florence
4. Agostino Chigi
5. Ottoman sultan
In 1534, the English declared that the head of their church was
A. the pope
B. Martin Luther
C. the king
D. the Archbishop of Canterbury
On the Sistine ceiling the tree of the forbidden fruit is
A. a grape vine.
B. a fig tree.
C. an oak tree.
D. an apple tree.
The patron of the Sistine ceiling was
A. Pope Clement VII
B. Pope Paul III
C. Pope Julius II
D. Pope Sixtus IV
Most of Titian’s paintings are
At the time Martin Luther publicised his manifesto calling for reform of the Catholic Church, he was
A. a Catholic monk
B. a German merchant
C. a Baptist preacher
D. an English farmer
Instructions: Consider the Italian criticism of the treatment of space in paintings from the fifteenth-century Netherlands, but also the expressive potential of Netherlandish spaces.
The fifteenth-century Italian insistence that art should be rational is something we should understand, but not accept as the only possible value.
In the discussion for this week, I’d like you to practice both criticizing and appreciating paintings that don’t fit the rules of the Italian Renaissance.
Here’s an example: Jan van Eyck’s Virgin in a Church (fig. I.10) is not realistic. The Virgin is much too big, or the church is much too small–her head comes up higher than the arches in the church. But it doesn’t seem reasonable to think of this as a mistake on the part of van Eyck. He must have made her huge on purpose. Since she is big enough to fill most of the church, he must have wanted us to see that she is not an ordinary woman.
I’ve taken a fifteenth-century Netherlandish painting and named one thing about it the space depicted in it that is not rational. Then I suggested why this lack of logic might make sense, or support a meaning the artist might have been trying to convey.
This week’s discussion has two parts:
1. In the discussion area, I’ve listed some of the paintings in Chapter 13 that are from the Netherlands. Pick one painting, and point out what is “wrong” (illogical, irrational) about the space.
2. Respond to Birtukan posting. Point out how the space could contribute to the intended meaning or feeling of the painting.
Posting of Birtukan: ?Jan Van Eyck?s Adam and Eve stand in the narrow end panels in the upper register (fig 13.64) is illusionistic. Van Eyck?s made the frame too small that it doesn?t much with the size of Adam and Eve he made them too big, and also I see some sculptures on top of Adam and Eve. He made them too small in size it is hard to see what they are doing, but may be Jan Van Eyck?s knows those paints had to be this way from an artist point of view. ?
Leonardo Da Vinci’s Last Supper (figs. 14.13 and 14.14)
Knowing about the fame that Michelangelo, Raphael and Leonardo enjoyed in their lifetimes helps us understand something of the importance of the Renaissance, but the true key to “the big deal” is in the art itself. One has to look at it carefully and consider its goals and methods. Many scholars have spent lifetimes on this, and having some idea of the true value of Renaissance art was long considered indispensable for a cultured individual.
We can make a small start here. Let us begin by considering balance.
The simplest form of balance is symmetry, when one side of an image is mirrored by the other side (or the top can mirror the bottom, etc.).
Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man explores the symmetry of the human body–the fact that our right sides mirror our left. Note that Leonardo does not maintain absolute symmetry. Although the arms are almost completely symmetrical, the legs are not. Note how the leg on our right rotates from the hip so that we see the inner side of the knee, while the one on our left is seen from the front. Each foot is presented from a different angle.
This subtle play with balance is typical of High Renaissance art, and I’d like you to explore it in two discussions.
In the Discussion area I have listed eight Renaissance images illustrated in Schneider Adams. I’d like you to pick one image and point out how the artist has played with balance–note one element that is not the same on both sides of the image.
Respond to someone else’s posting.
This time, consider the effect of the asymmetry and of the way the artist has played with it. For example, in Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man, differences between the right and left legs, and especially the feet, help us sense the man’s weight and his potential to move.
Posting of Elba ?Leonardo’s Da Vinci, had the most important Christian Art. In that picture (14.13-14.14) shows how he balance, The twelve apostles in vertical line. He had divede in four groups of three apostles. However, Jesus is in the middle, like the vanishing point at his left side has six apostles, and his right the others six. Which made linear perspective. I am seen in the picture Da Vinci’s form a triangle with Jesus arms. He had been balancing the three windows behind him using linear perspective. I see the one side which is the left is not the same of the right; In left side Saint Peter is facing Jesus very angre about the announcement Jesus had made. And John is slumps toward Peter. The right side they’re appearance is more surprise.?
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