Fear and Humor alone work as a persuasive message strategy, but according to this study: Mixing emotions: The use of humor in fear advertising Ashesh Mukherjee*, Laurette Dubé, (use this article)
There is a significant increase of positive effect when humor is added to fear appeal.
Please create an introduction, theoretical framework and methods section for the following topic: How humor and fear appeal combined in
one message provide a higher likelihood for viewer or consumer to respond in the way the advertiser wants. In this particular case,
please find a specific topic that has not yet been studied. I believe alcohol intake reduction has already been done before, but
increasing the use of contraception, in correlation with the combined emotions of humor and fear in the message, may not have.
***TOPIC MUST BE SOMETHING THAT HAS NOT YET BEEN STUDIED
***ALL CRITERIA BELOW MUST BE MET
Criteria for this assignment:
The paper is a short research proposal and consists of a minimum of fifteen scientific theoretical and empirical publications. By
reading and processing these publications, insight in the specific domains of message strategies will be enhanced.
Objectives of this assignment are:
o Being able to identify different research domains within message strategies
o To learn to critically approach research
o To learn to work up a new topic independent, efficient and adequate and to give a clear and concise analysis of it.
o To learn to formulate research questions based on thorough literature research.
o To learn to formulate a research strategy
o To learn to formulate a strategy regarding data analysis.
The best way to start this assignment is to critically read and evaluate the scientific theoretical and empirical papers. Based on your
readings, you will be able to formulate one or more research questions, on which your research proposal will be based. To be able to
write a good research proposal, you should choose a domain which has been researched sufficiently, but not exhaustively. That is, there
should be enough information available to base your research on, but not so much that there is nothing left to study. If there is a
theoretical reason for you research, one of the following situations is often the case:
– An interesting topic is not yet researched;
– There are conflicting results/views on your topic;
– Your specific research question is not well enough studied yet.
During reading, take into account the following points:
– On which theory (e.g. social-psychological model) is the study based? Do variables that are measured correspond with this particular
theory, and are all variables of the theory/model assessed in the study?
– Which variables are independent and which are dependent ones? (note that variables can be both)
– What about the operationalization of the variables? That is, do they measure what they should measure according to the theory?
– In case more studies investigate the same variables, are variables operationalized in the same manner, and if not, what consequences
will this have for results? Which operationalizations do you prefer, and why?
– In case different conclusions are drawn, how can this be explained?
Your research proposal consists of three parts:
A hallmark of a good research question is that the question cannot be answered by already existing knowledge. To be able to identify
whether your research question is a good one, you first have to read and evaluate thoroughly the theoretical and empirical literature
available. In case your research question is a more practical one, underlying theoretical notions have to be studied as well, because
you should make clear how certain insights have come about.
When formulating your research question(s), take into account the following criteria:
– The research question should not be too broad.
– The research question should be specific, concise and clear.
– Assumptions underlying your research question have to be based on existing knowledge
– The research question is new and not studied before
– The answer to your research question should be theoretically and/or practically relevant
– Your research question should be operationalizable.
In your introduction, you also clearly describe why your research has to be carried out, the aim of your research and it’s theoretical
and/or practical relevance. Your research aim and research question(s) should, of course, be strongly related to each other. Do not
describe theories and empirical findings in detail, because that should be part of your theory chapter.
You can use the following questions as a checklist to make sure your introduction is complete. These questions should be answered in
• What’s your research about?
• What’s the reason for your research?
• What exactly is the problem?
• What is the scientific relevance of your research?
• What is the practical relevance of your research?
• What is (are) your research question(s)?
• What is the aim of your research?
In your theoretical chapter you describe the theoretical base of your research proposal. You define concepts, variables as well as the
relations between variables. In addition, you describe relevant theories/models which are related to your research question, as well as
previous study results on your topic. Depending on the aim of your research and research question, you can formulate hypotheses based
on theory and empirical results. You integrate the various theoretical and empirical insights and give your own vision on the topic.
When writing your theory, always make sure that there is a relation with your own research. Do not describe theories and studies you do
not use in your own research! In case your proposed research is complex, you can end your theory chapter with your own conceptual
model, in which all variables and relations between variables are visualized.
1. Do not summarize theories and studies, but use these to write your own, argument-based, story. Critically reflect on the various
theories/empirical findings in relation to your own research question. Indicate similarities and differences between theories/empirical
findings and give reasons for these similarities and differences. Write in a concise and specific way, and do not elaborate on side
issues and trivialities.
2. Your research question is the steppingstone of your theoretical chapter. In order to be able to write a coherent proposal,
everything you write in this chapter has to be related to your research question.
3. Start your chapter with general insights and information on your topic (e.g. effects of advertizing), and continue with more
specific information (e.g. effects of advertizing among preschool children).
4. Divide your theory in chapters and paragraphs. Every paragraph consists of one topic, such as a theory, a variable, or a relation
between variables. Make sure that your paragraphs are related to each other; one paragraph leads to another!
5. Give a critical, clear and concise analysis of previous study results.
In your method chapter, you operationalize your research question and, if applicable, your hypotheses. Indicate which variables are
independent and which are dependent, (and if applicable: which are mediators and which are moderators). You also describe your research
design, your sample and how you are going to analyze the data. Shortly describe which measurement instruments you are going to use. In
case there are no existing, valid and reliable instruments available, you do not have to develop measurement instruments yourself, but
do provide a short example (e.g. example item).
Finish this chapter with a strategy for analyzing your data. Indicate which statistical procedures you are going to use to answer you
research question/hypotheses. Which procedures you may use, depends on a number of issues, among which the level on which you have
measured your variables (i.e. nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio). It is assumed that you have learned this during your bachelor, so we
will not go into that here.
The following databases will be most suitable for this assignment:
– Communication Abstracts
It is assumed to you have learned how to search for literature during the bachelor, so we will not go into that again.
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